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Lesson 5.2

Functions of the Digestive -Medical Language for Modern Health Care, 3rd Edition

TermDefinition
Ingestion the selective intake of food into the mouth. Alternatively, food can be inserted directly into the stomach via a nasogastric or stomach tube.
Propulsion the mechanical movement of food from the mouth to the anus. Normally, this takes 24 to 36 hours.
Mastication (chewing) breaks down the food into smaller particles so that digestive enzymes have a larger surface area with which to interact.
Deglutition (swallowing) moves the bolus of food from the mouth into the esophagus.
Peristalsis (waves) of contraction and relaxation, moves material through most of the alimentary canal. Segmental contractions
Digestion the breakdown of foods into forms that can be transported to and absorbed into cells.
Mechanical digestion breaks larger pieces of food into smaller ones without altering their chemical composition. This process exposes a larger surface area of the food to the action of digestive enzymes.
Chemical digestion breaks down large molecules of food into smaller and simpler chemicals. This process is carried out by digestive enzymes produced by the salivary glands, stomach, small intestine, and pancreas.
The digestive enzymes have three main groups • Amylases • Lipases • Proteases
Amylases that digest carbohydrates
Lipases that digest fats
Proteases that digest proteins
Secretion the addition throughout the digestive tract of secretions that lubricate, liquefy, and digest the food. Mucus lubricates the food and the lining of the tract. Water liquefies the food to make it easier to digest and absorb. Enzymes break down the food.
Absorption the movement of nutrient molecules out of the digestive tract and through the epithelial cells lining the tract into the blood or lymph for transportation to body cells.
Elimination the process by which the unabsorbed residue of food is removed from the body.
Absorption Latin to swallow Uptake of nutrients and water by cells in the GI tract
absorb (verb) Pertaining to absorption
amylase One of a group of enzymes that break down starch
-ase (Suffix) enzyme
amyl- (Prefix) starch
bolus lump Single mass of a substance
deglutition The act of swallowing
-ion (Suffix) action
deglutit- (Prefix) to swallow
elimination Removal of waste material from the digestive tract
-ation (Suffix) process
elimin- (Prefix) throw away
ingestion Intake of food, either by mouth or through a nasogastric tube
-ion (Suffix) action
ingest- (Prefix) carry in
lipase Enzyme that breaks down fat
-ase (Suffix) enzyme
lip- (Prefix) fat
nasogastric Pertaining to the nose and stomach
-ic (Suffix) pertaining to
nas/o- (Combining Form) nose
-gastr- (Root) stomach
peristalsis Waves of alternate contraction and relaxation of alimentary canal wall to move food along the digestive tract
peri- (Prefix) around
-stalsis (Suffix) constrict
protease Group of enzymes that break down protein
-ase (Suffix) enzyme
prot/e- (Combining Form) protein
secrete 1. Latin to separate 2. To release or give off, as substances produced by cells
secretion (noun) Pertaining to secrete.
segment 1. Latin to cut 2. A section of an organ or structure
segmental (adj) Pertaining to a segment
-al (Suffix) pertaining to
segment- (Root) section
Created by: tehreem34