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Term 4 4

Immunity, Antigens, Pathogens and Lines of defense

The immune system is made up of a group of ........... tissues, ......... and ............ vessels that assist the ........ to .......... infections through ................ cells. The immune system is made up of a group of lymphoid tissues, organs and lymphatic vessels that help the body to resist infections through specialized cells.
What are Lymphocytes? A class of white blood cell
what do they do? Travel through the lymph nodes looking for foreign material.
What is immunity? The reaction that occurs in an animal in response to an infection.
What are Antigens? Compounds usually made of protein and carbohydrates
Antigens can be ....... or ...... ........? They can be self or not self
What is self? the material made by the body it inhabits
What is non self? Material that are not made by the body it inhabits.
What do they do? trigger the immune system to respond in different ways
What will a Non-self antigen do? Trigger the production of an Antibody
What are Antibodies? Proteins produced by lymphocytes (white blood cell).
Why are they produced? In response to non-self antigens
What do they react with specifically? The antigens that trigger their production.
What are pathogens? Organisms that can cause disease in a host (eg Bacteria, fungus, virus,)
.......... on the surface of ............ will ......... the .......... ........ to respond. antigens on the surface of pathogens will trigger the immune system to respond.
........... will produce antibodies specific to the .........? Lymphocytes will produce antibodies specific to the antigen.
What will the antibody react with? Antibody will react with the Antigen.
How? By combining with it and disabling it.
What will this do? Stop the pathogen from causing disease in the host organisms
What is nonspecific immunity Natural or innate immunity that doesn't change or adapt over time due to exposure to invasions.
What does it involve? Psychical and Chemical barriers to infections
Why nonspecific? Because it reacts the same to each invasion (no memory)
What is specific immunity? Immunity that is acquired or adapted over time due to exposure of different invasions.
What does it involve? Production of the specialized cells or substances antibodies.
Why specific? The reaction depends on the type of invasion.
What is the purpose of the first line of defense? Preventing invasion of micro-organisms by attempting to stop them entering the body
First line defense are all forms of ............ ................. Nonspecific immunity
Skin? covers almost all of us, acts as a barrier to invading micro-organisms
Extra info? Skin glands produce fatty acids and sweat contain salt. Both of these prevent bacteria.
Mucous membranes? Trap bacteria, cilia sweeps the bacteria up to the back of the throat. Cilia also acts as a barrier.
How is it got rid of? Sneezed, coughed or blown out. Sometimes swallowed.
Natural Secretions Contain substances that can kill bacteria (e.g. enzymes and acids)
Natural flora? Many animals have naturally occurring bacteria on the skin, in the gut and in the vagina.
What doe this naturally occurring bacteria do? It prevents the growth of pathogenic bacteria.
The second line of defense are all forms of ............ ...............? Nonspecific immunity
Phagocytes? Engulf and destroy many micro-organisms and foreign materials that enter the body.
Natural Killer Cells Kill virus infected body cells.
What is the white blood cells role in this? Attach to and help destroy other blood parasties such as worms that are too large to engulf.
How do Compliment Proteins assist Phagocytes? They help phagocytes recognize and attach to invading micro-organisms.
Interferon? Proteins produced by cells which acts on uninfected cells.
What does this cause? This causes antiviral proteins to be made.
Cytokines? proteins molecules that act as messengers between cells and the immune system.
Inflammation? Reaction to an infection that occurs when arterioles in the affected area dilate
What does this do? Increases both blood flow and phagocytes in that area.
Created by: zarap103
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