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OXYGENATION

Nursing Funds Mod B Oxygen

TermDefinition
OXYGEN BASIC HUMAN NEED
HEART & LUNGS SUPPLY THE BODY W/ OXYGEN NECESSARY FOR CARRYING OUT THE RESPIRATORY & METABOLIC PROCESSES NEEDED TO SUSTAIN LIFE
CARDIOPULMONARY SYSTEM TO PROVIDE OXYGEN TO THE TISSUES AND REMOVE CARBON DIOXIDE & WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE BODY
VENTILATION THE MOVEMENT OF AIR IN & OUT OF THE LUNGS
DIFFUSION MOVEMENT OF GASES BETWEEN AIR SPACES & THE BLOODSTREAM AT THE ALVEOLI
RESPIRATION THE EXCHANGE OF O2 & CO2 DURING CELLULAR METABOLISM
PERFUSION MOVEMENT OF BLOOD INTO & OUT OF THE LUNGS TO THE ORGANS & TISSUES OF THE BODY
RIGHT LUNG 3 LOBES UPPER, MIDDLE, LOWER
LEFT LUNG 2 LOBES UPPER, LOWER
ALVEOLI GAS EXCHANGE IN THE LUNGS
NEURAL REGULATORS (CNS) SENDS SIGNALS TO THE CHEST WALL MUSCULATURE TO CONTROL VENTILATION RATE, DEPTH, & RHYTHM
CHEMICAL REGULATION INVOLVES THE INFLUENCE OF CHEMICALS SUCH AS CARBON DIOXIDE & HYDROGEN IONS, WHICH AFFECT THE RATE & DEPTH OF VENTILATION
OXYGENATION AMOUNT OF OXYGEN ENTERING THE LUNGS FROM THE ATMOSPHERE; FUNCTION OF THE CARDIOPULMONARY SYSTEM
HEMOGLOBIN TRANSPORTS MOST OXYGEN & SERVES AS A CARRIER FOR BOTH OXYGEN & CARBON DIOXIDE
OXYHEMOGLOBIN HEMOGLOBIN MOLECULE COMBINED WITH OXYGEN
OXYGEN TRANSPORT -O2 ENTERING LUNGS -BLOOD FLOW TO THE LUNGS -O2 CARRING CAPACITY OF BLOOD WHICH IS INFLUENCED BY: - AMOUNT OF O2
HYPOXIA INADEQUETE TISSUE OXYGENATION WITH A DEFICIENCY IN OXYGEN DELIVERY OR OXYGEN UTILIZATION AT THE CELLULAR LEVEL; LIFE THREATENING
HYPOVOLEMIA DEHYDRATION/SHOCK
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF HYPOXIA -TACHYCARDIA -PERIPHERAL VASOCONTRICTION -DIZZINESS -MENTAL CONFUSION
TREATMENT OF HYPOXIA -CARDIAC & RESPIRATORY STIMULANT DRUGS -OXYGEN THERAPY -MECHANICAL VENTILATION -FREQUENT ANALYSIS OF BLOOD GASES
HYPOXEMIA AN ABNORMAL DEFICIENCY IN THE CONCENTRATION OF OXYGEN IN ARTERIAL BLOOD; A LOW PARTIAL PRESSURE OF OXYGEN (PaO2)
VALVES OF THE HEART TRICUSPID - PULMONARY - MITRAL - AORTIC TOILET - PAPER - MY - ASS
HYPOVENTILATION WHEN VENTILATION IS INADEQUATE TO MEET THE OXYGEN DEMANDS OF THE BODY TO ELIMINATE CARBON DIOXIDE
AS VENTILATION DECREASES PaCO2 INCREASES
HYPERCAPNIA HIGH CARBON DIOXIDE LEVELS
HYPERVENTILATION AN INCREASE IN RESPIRATORY RATE, RESULTING IN EXCESS AMOUNTS OF CARBON DIOXIDE ELIMINATION
TETANY CARPOPEDAL SPASM (MUSCLE SPASM OF HANDS/FEET)
SYSTOLE CONTRACTION PHASE; BLOOD IS EXPELLED FROM THE VENTRICLES
DIASTOLE RELAXATION PHASE; BLOOD FILLS THE VENTRICLES
MYOCARDIUM HEART MUSCLE
MOTTLING REDDISH/PURPLISH BLOTCHY SKIN; DECREASED PERFUSION
AFTERLOAD RESISTANCE TO THE EJECTION OF BLOOD FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE
LEFT VENTRICLE/AORTIC PRESSURE FACT LEFT VENTRICULAR PRESSURE MUSCLE BE GREATER THAN THE AORTIC PRESSURE TO EJECT BLOOD FROM THE HEART
PRELOAD AMOUNT OF BLOOD AT THE END OF VENTRICULAR DIASTOLE (END-DIASTOLIC PRESSURE)
CONTRACTION & RELAXATION 1 CARDIAC CYCLE
CARDIAC OUTPUT (CO) AMOUNT OF BLOOD EJECTED FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE EACH MINUTES (adults = 4-6 L/min)
STROKE VOLUME (SV) x HEART RATE (HR) = CARDIAC OUTPUT
STROKE VOLUME (SV) AMOUNT OF BLOOD EJECTED FROM THE VENTRICLE W/ EACH CONTRACTION (adult = 50-75 mL/contraction)
HEART RATE (HR) BEATS PER MINUTE; REGULATED BY THE SYMPATHETIC & PARASYMPATHETIC SYSTEMS (60-100 beats/min)
MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILITY ABILITY OF THE HEART TO SQUEEZE BLOOD FROM THE VENTRICLES & PREPARE FOR THE NEXT CONTRACTION
CARDIAC INDEX A MEASURE OF ADEQUACY OF THE CARDIAC OUTPUT
CONDUCTION SYSTEM GENERATES IMPULSES THAT INITIATE THE ELECTRICAL MECHANICAL CHAIN OF EVENTS FOR A NORMAL HEARTBEAT
SINOATRIAL (SA) NODE -"PACEMAKER" OF THE HEART -IN RIGHT ATRIUM NEXT TO SUPERIOR VENA CAVA -IMPULSES BEGIN AT RATE OF 60-100 beats/min
ATRIOVENTRICULAR (AV) NODE -MEDIATES IMPULSE TRANSMISSION BETWEEN THE ATRIA & VENTRICLES -TRANSMITS THROUGH BUNDLE OF HIS & PURKINJE NETWORK FOR ATRIAL EMPTYING
ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG) RECORDS ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF THE CONDUCTION SYSTEM AS WAVES & COMPLEXES
NORMAL SINUS RHYTHM (NSR) NORMAL SEQUENCE OF ELECTRICAL IMPULSES ON AN ECG
NORMAL ECG WAVEFORM CONSISTS OF: -P WAVE (atrial depolarization) -QRS COMPLEX (ventricular depolarization) -T WAVE (ventricular repolarization)
HEART FAILURE FAILURE OF THE MYOCARDIUM TO EJECT SUFFICIENT BLOOD VOLUME TO THE SYSTEMIC & PULMONARY CIRCULATIONS
MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA WHEN CORONARY ARTERY DOES NOT SUPPLY SUFFICIENT BLOOD TO THE HEART MUSCLE
DECREASED PERFUSION = CHEST PAIN
ANGINA PECTORIS DECREASED BLOOD FLOW TO THE MYOCARDIUM DUE TO SPASMS OR TEMPORARY CONSTRICTION
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION NECROSIS OF A PORTION OF CARDIAC MUSCLE CAUSED BY OBSTRUCTION IN A CORONARY ARTERY
VALVULAR HEART DISEASE AN ACQUIRED/CONGENITAL DISORDER OF A CARDIAC VALVE CHARACTERIZED BY STENOSIS = OBSTRUCTED BLOOD FLOW = BACKFLOW OF BLOOD RESULTS
LEFT-SIDED HEART FAILURE -IMPAIRED FUNCTIONING OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE -INCREASED PRELOAD OR AFTERLOAD -DECREASED BLOOD EJECTED FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE -DECREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT -CRACKLES ON AUSCULTATION
ORTHOPNEA DIFFICULTY BREATHING WHILE LYING DOWN
RIGHT-SIDED HEART FAILURE -IMPAIRED FUNCTION OF THE RIGHT VENTRICLE CAUSED BY PULMONARY DISEASE/HYPERTENSION -INCREASE IN PULMONARY SYSTEM -INCREASED RESISTANCE IN THE RIGHT VENTRICLE -RIGHT VENTRICLE FAILS AS A RESULT OF DISTENDED JUGULAR VEINS -PERIPHERAL EDEMA
DYSRHYTHMIA DISTURBANCE IN THE ELECTRICAL IMPULSE OF THE HEART RHYTHM
TACHYCARDIA >100 BEATS/MIN
BRADYCARDIA <60 BEATS/MIN
ATRIAL FIBRILLATION (A-FIB) IRREGULAR ATRIAL ACTIVITY RESULTING IN AN IRREGULAR VENTRICAL RESPONSE W/ RESULTANT IRREGULAR CARDIAC RATE/RHYTHM; NO IDENTIFYABLE P-WAVE
VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA RHYTHM SLIGHTLY IRREGULAR; RATE 100-200 BEATS/MIN; P WAVE ABSENT; QRS COMPLEX WIDE >0.12 SECONDS
VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION -IRREGULAR & CHAOTIC RHYTHM W/ NO DISCERNIBLE WAVES/RATE
ASYSTOLE ABSENCE OF ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY; NO DISCERNIBLE RATE/RHYTHM; PULSELESS/APNEIC
ANEMIA A DEFICIENCY OF RED BLOOD CELLS OR OF HEMOGLOBIN IN THE BLOOD, RESULTING IN PALLOR/WEARINESS
97% OF OXYGEN IS CARRIED ON THE HEMOGLOBIN MOLECULE TRUE STORY :)
CARBON MONOXIDE MOST COMMON TOXIC INHALANT THAT DECREASES OXYGEN-CARRYING CAPACITY IN BLOOD CREATING HYPOXIA
DECREASED CONCENTRATED OF INSPIRED OXYGEN = DECREASED OXYGEN CARRYING CAPACITY OF BLOOD
INSPIRED OXYGEN CONCENTRATION FiO2
INCREASED METABOLIC INCREASED OXYGEN DEMAND
FEVER INCREASED NEED OF THE TISSUES FOR OXYGEN = INCREASED CARBON DIOXIDE PRODUCTION
DIAPHRAGMATIC MOVEMENT ABILITY TO EXPAND & CONTRACT THE CHEST
ATELECTASIS COLLAPSE OF ALVEOLI, PREVENTING NORMAL RESPIRATORY EXCHANGE OF OXYGEN & CARBON MONOXIDE
DISEASE/TRAUMA INVOLVING THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA & SPINAL CORD OF THE CNS W/OR HAS THE ABILITY TO IMPAIR RESPIRATION MMM HMMMM YES IT DOES....PLEASE BE CAREFUL!
FLAIL CHEST FRACTURES CAUSE INSTABILITY IN PART OF THE CHEST WALL; LIFE-THREATENING
PARADOXICAL BREATHING LUNG UNDERLYING THE INJURED AREA CONTRACTS ON INSPIRATION & EXPANDS ON EXPIRATION
SURFACTANT A CHEMICAL IN THE LUNG THAT MAINTAINS THE INTEGRITY OF THE ALVEOLI, KEEPING THE ALVEOLI DRY & PREVENTING ALVEOLAR COLLAPSE; DEVELOPS @ 7 MONTHS GESTATION
AHA AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION
ALA AMERICAN LUNG ASSOCIATION
ATS AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY
ACS AMERICAN CANCER SOCIETY
AHRQ AGENCY FOR HEALTHCARE RESEARCH & QUALITY
FATIGUE SUBJECTIVE SENSATION REPORTED AS A LOSS OF ENDURANCE
PAROXYSMAL NOCTURNAL DYSPNEA (PND) DYSPNEA THAT OCCURS DURING SLEEP
ORTHOPNEA ABNORMAL CONDITION WHILE LYING DOWN HAS DIFFICULTY BREATHING
WHEEZING HIGH-PITCHED MUSICAL SOUND CAUSED BY HIGH-VELOCITY MOVEMENT OF AIR THROUGH A NARROWED AIRWAY; ASTHMA, ACUTE BRONCHITIS, PNEUMONIA
COUGH A SUDDEN, AUDIBLE EXPULSION OF AIR FROM THE LUNGS
HEMOPTYSIS BLOODY SPUTUM
CASCADE COUGH HOLD BREATHE FOR 2 SECONDS AND THEN COUGH
HUFF COUGH SAYS HUFF WHILE COUGHING
QUAD COUGH PT COUGH WHILE HOLDING ABDOMEN
PRODUCTIVE COUGH RESULTS IN SPUTUM PRODUCTION THAT IS SWALLOWED OR EXPECTORATED
INFLUENZA VIRAL INFECTION THAT CAN CAUSE SERIOUS COMPLICATIONS
OXYGEN THERAPY -TO PREVENT/RELIEVE HYPOXIA -OXYGEN IS A DRUG -7 RIGHTS APPLY TO OXYGEN ADMINISTRATION
NASAL CANNULA SIMPLE/COMFORTABLE (1-6 L/MIN)
TRANSTRACHAEAL CANNULA IV SIZE CATHETER INTO TRACHEA (1/4-4 L/MIN)
OXYGEN MASKS ADMIN O2; HUMIDITY/HEAT
SIMPLE FACE MASKS SHORT-TERM O2 (5-8 L/MIN)
PARTIAL NON-REBREATHER HIGH CONCENTRATION O2 (6-10 L/MIN)
VENTURI MASK HIGH-FLOW O2 (4-12 L/MIN)
HUMIDIFICATION -BUBBLING OXYGEN THROUGH WATER -MORE THAN 4 L/MIN SOURCE OF HAI
NEBULIZER AEROSOL PRINCIPLE TO SUSPEND A MAXIMUM NUMBER OF WATER DROPS/PARTICLES OF THE DESIRED SIZE IN INSPIRED AIR;MEDICATED
ARTIFICIAL AIRWAY PATIENT W/ DECREASED LEVEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS; AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION, MECHANICAL VENTILATION, OR REMOVE TRACHEOBRONCHIAL SECRETIONS
ORAL AIRWAY PREVENTS OBSTRUCTION OF THE TRACHEA BY DISPLACEMENT OF THE TONGUE INTO THE OROPHARYNX; MEASURED JAW TO EAR LOBE
TRACHEAL AIRWAY ENDOTRACHEAL, NASOTRACHEAL, TRACHEAL; DEEP TRACHEAL SUCTIONING
45 DEG. LYING ANGLE SEMI-FOWLER -CARDIOPULMONARY DISEASES -HEALTH LUNG SIDE DOWN IF PNEUMOTHORAX OR ATELECTASIS -AFFECTED LUNG SIDE DOWN IF PULMONARY ABSCESS OR HEMORRHAGE
INCENTIVE SPIROMETRY METHOD OF ENCOURAGING VOLUNTARY DEEP BREATHING BY PROVIDING VISUAL FEEDBACK TO PTS. ABOUT INSPIRATORY VOLUME (BLOW INTO TUBE TO RAISE THE COLORED BALLS AND HOLD AS LONG AS YOU CAN)
CHEST PHYSIOTHERAPY (CPT) MOBILIZES PULMONARY SECRETIONS INCLUDES: POSTURAL DRAINAGE, CHEST PERCUSSION & VIBRATIONS FOLLOWED BY COUGHING/SUCTIONING; >30 mL OF SPUTUM/DAY
POSTURAL DRAINAGE USE OF POSITIONING TECHNIQUES TO DRAIN SECRETIONS FROM
CHEST PERCUSSION STRIKING THE CHEST WALL OVER THE AREA W/ A CUPPED HAND; ALTERNATE HAND MOTION; CHANGES CONSISTENCY/LOCATION OF SPUTUM
VIBRATION FINE, SHAKING PRESSURE APPLIED TO THE CHEST WALL ONLY DURING EXHALATION; SHAKES MUCOUS LOOSE & INDUCES COUGH; PERFORM ON INFANTS & YOUNG CHILDREN
CHEST TUBE CATHETER INSERTED THROUGH THE RIB CAGE INTO THE PHEURAL SPACE TO REMOVE AIR OR FLUIDS
PNEUMOTHORAX COLLECTION OF AIR OR OTHER GAS IN THE PHEURAL SPACE; COLLAPSED LUNG
HEMOTHORAX AN ACCUMULATION OF BLOOD IN THE PHEURAL CAVITY BETWEEN THE PARIETAL & VISCERAL PLEURAE; USUALLY FROM TRAUMA; PREVENTS FULL EXPANSION
NON-INVASIVE VENTILATION (NIV) MAINTAINS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE & IMPROVES ALVEOLAR VENTILATION W/O ARTIFICIAL AIRWAY; CPAP/BIPAP
CARDIAC ARREST SUDDEN CESSATION OF CARDIAC OUTPUT & CIRCULATION; HEART, BRAIN & TISSUE DAMAGE OCCURS WITHIN 4-6 MIN.; LACK OF PULSE/RESPIRATION
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR) BASIC EMERGENCY PROCEDURE OF ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION & MANUAL EXTERNAL CARDIAC MASSAGE
C-A-B CHEST COMPRESSION/AIRWAY/BREATHING
DEFIBRILLATION RECOMMENDATIONS 5 MINUTES OUT OF HOSPITAL SETTING 3 MINUTES IN HOSPITAL SETTING
CHEST COMPRESSIONS 100 COMPRESSIONS/MIN
1 OR 2 RESCUER ON AGE 8 AND OLDER 30 CHEST COMPRESSIONS THEN 2 BREATHS
2 RESCUER ON AGE 7 AND UNDER 15 COMPRESSIONS THEN 2 BREATHS
CARDIOPULMONARY REHABILITATION ACTIVELY HELPING A PT. ACHIEVE & MAINTAIN AN OPTIMAL LEVEL OF HEALTH THROUGH CONTROLLD PHYSICAL EXERCISE, NUTRITION COUNSELING, RELAXATION & STRESS MANAGEMENT, PRESCRIBED MEDICATIONS, & OXYGEN ADMINISTRATION
PURSED-LIP BREATHING DEEP INSPIRATION & PROLONGED EXPIRATION THROUGH PURSED-LIPS TO PREVENT ALVEOLAR COLLAPSE; SIT UP, DEEP BREATH IN & BLOW OUT THROUGH PURSED LIPS
DIAPHRAGMATIC BREATHING PT. TO RELAX THE INTERCOSTAL & ACCESSORY RESPIRATORY MUSCLES WHILE TAKING DEEP INSPIRATIONS; 2 HANDS W/ 1 BELOW THE BREASTBONE & OTHER 2-3 CM. BELOW MOVING ONLY LOWER HAND ON INSPIRATION
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HYPOXIA AND HYPOXEMIA IS: HYPOXIA IS INADEQUATE OXYGEN AT THE CELLULAR LEVEL
A NURSE IS CARING FOR A PATIENT IN RESPIRATORY DISTRESS. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS INCLUDED IN THE ASSESSMENT? (select all that apply) - USE OF ACCESSORY MUSCLES OF RESPIRATION - RESPIRATORY RATE - PULSE OXIMETRY - ABILITY TO CONVERSE
THE NORMAL ELECTRICAL PATHWAY OF THE HEART IS: SA NODE-ATRIA-AV NODE BUNDLE OF HIS-PURKINJE FIBERS-VENTRICLES
THE MOST EFFECTIVE BREATHING TECHNIQUES FOR A PATIENT WITH COPD INCLUDE: PURSED LIP BREATHING
AFTERLOAD IS DEFINED AS: THE RESISTANCE OF THE EJECTION OF BLOOD FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLES
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH VENTILATOR-ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA (VAP)? FEVER AND PROGRESSIVE INFILTRATES ON THE CHEST RADIOGRAPH 3 DAYS AFTER INITIATION OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING FINDINGS ARE CONSISTENT WITH AN INCREASED RISK OF DEVELOPING VENTILATOR-ASSOCIATES PNEUMONIA (VAP)? POOLING OF SECRETIONS IN THE OROPHARYNX
VENTILATOR-ASSOICATED PNEUMONIA (VAP) IS ASSOCIATED WITH COLONIZATION OF THE: RESPIRATORY AND DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS
THE CURRENT COMPRESSION RATE FOR CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR) IS AT LEAST: 100 BEATS/MIN
PRELOAD IS: THE AMOUNT OF BLOOD AT THE END OF VENTRICULAR DIASTOLE, OR MEASURED AS END-DIASTOLIC PRESSURE
NEURAL REGULATION NEURAL REGULATION MAINTAINS RHYTHYM AND DEPTH OF RESPIRATION AND THE BALANCE BETWEEN INSPIRATION AND EXPIRATION
CEREBRAL CORTEX VOLUNTARY CONTROL OF RESPIRATION DELIVERS IMPULSES TO THE RESPIRATORY MOTOR NEURONS BY WAY OF THE SPINAL CORD. ACCOMODATES: SPEAKING, EATING AND SWIMMING
MEDULLA OBLONGATA AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF RESPIRATION OCCURS CONTINUOUSLY
KUSSMAUL'S is a deep and labored breathing pattern often associated with severe metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but also kidney failure (>35 breaths/min)
CHEYNE-STOKES ABNORMAL PATTERN OF BREATHING, VARYING BETWEEN APNEA AND TACHYPNEA
AED DEVICE USED TO ADMINISTER AN ELECTRICAL SHOCK THROUGH THE CHEST WALL TO THE HEART
BREATHING EXERCISES IMPROVE: VENTILATION OXYGENATION SENSATIONS OF DYSPNEA
OXYGEN THERAPY IMRPROVES: LEVELS OF TISSUE OXYGENATION BY NASAL CANNULA, NASAL CATHETER, OR OXYGEN MASK
CHEST PHYSIOTHERAPY INCLUDES: POSTURAL DRAINAGE PERCUSSION VIBRATION
DECREASED HEMOGLOBIN LEVELS ALTER A PATIENT'S ABILITY TO TRANSPORT OXYGEN YES IT DOES.......WE NEED TO TAKE CARE OF OURSELVES!
CARDIAC DYSRHYTHMIAS ARE CLASSIFIED BY: CARDIAC ACTIVITY AND SITE OF IMPULSE ORIGIN
Created by: Smccunn