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Gr 8 Science Cells 2

Cells Part 2 Bacteria and Viruses

What is Miasma Theory? People once thought that all illnesses came from wandering clouds of poisonous vapour (Miasma Theory)
What is Germ Theory? During a Cholera outbreak in 1840, early Microscopes revealed the existence of microscopic organisms which lead to scientists proposing that it was germs that cause illnesses.
What is a Narrow-spectrum antibiotic? A treatment that only covers a small/specific group of bacteria
What are Broad-spectrum antibiotics? A treatment that covers a large/general group of bacteria
Why can Broad-spectrum antibiotics be referred to as the "terrorist" type of antibiotic? effective against wide range of bacteria. Kills are less specific (bystander or helpful bacteria may be harmed) Must take for full length of treatment or bacteria could develop resistance. With a serious or more than 1 infection broad-spec will be given.
What is an Antibiotic? A chemical/medicine that fights against bacteria by killing, or neutralizing it
Do Antibiotics work on viruses? NO, they only work on bacteria because viruses are not made up of cells
What is a bacteriophage? A category of virus that enters a bacterial cells, makes copies of itself, then destroys it (or devours/eats it)
What is bacteria? One-celled living organisms
List some characteristics of bacteria *Live everywhere *one celled organism *many are harmless or beneficial *Cell membrane and protein synthesis disruption *can be killed by antibiotics
What is an antibody? A protein created by a cell to attack and destroy the virus
What is RNA? Small fragments of information that match up to the DNA of the cell
What is a Ribosome? The organelles in the cell that create proteins for the cell to use. Needs nucleus to send messages to it to create the proteins out of amino acids.
What is a Swan Neck Flask? A container that allows air to enter but not outside bacteria or dust contaminants.
What is DNA? The material inside a nucleus that contains all the genetic information required for the function and creation of cells
What is Prebiotic chemistry? Chemical mixtures that existed before life was recorded.
Why are Narrow-spectrum antibiotics referred to as the "assassin" type of antibiotic? kills a direct target. Must be taken for full length of treatment to prevent resistance. Usually there is a blood test to make sure the antibiotic will work.
What are Amino Acids? The building blocks of proteins inside the cell. These amino acids are found in many of the foods we eat.
What is the Cell Membrane? A cell membrane is a thin, semi permeable, flexible wall made of fat and protein that surrounds and protects the inside components of the cell and controls the passage of materials in or out of the cell
What is the Mitochondria? The powerhouse of the cell that is responsible for respiration. Takes oxygen & carbohydrates & makes C02 & water, this process releases energy. This energy fuels all the cells activities.
What is Spontaneous Generation Theory that some kind of vital principle in the air caused life to just arise out of nothing/non living things.
List some differences between Plant and Animal Cells P Cells have a cell wall, A cells don't. P cells have chloroplasts, A cells don't. A cells round/irregular in shape, P cells are fixed rectangular shape. A cell has 1 or more small vacuoles, P cells 1 central vacuole that can take up to 90% of the cell
What is the Cell Wall contained only in plant cells. Made of rigid cellulose that gives the plant structure.
What is Natural Selection? Mutations occur within cells, but sometimes these mutations give the cell a competitive edge. If this happens the cells divide and reproduce and could eventually outcompete other non-mutated bacteria.
Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotic Resistance? Occurs when bacteria can withstand an antibiotic (it is unaffected) It is antibiotic proof.
What is a Protein? Substance made up for amino acids. Main component of muscle, but are also found in the cell.
What is a Golgi Apparatus? a folded organelle , that plays an important role in transporting, modifying and packaging proteins and very commonly antibodies.
What are Enzymes? Chemicals in a cell responsible for breaking down other substances. Names of enzymes end with -ase. Ex.Lactose=milk sugar; Lactase is the enzyme that breaks down lactose.
What does DNA stand for? Deoxyribonucleic acid it's made up of 4 main base chemicals GTCA (Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine. Arranged in a twisted ladder format (double helix) Looks like a zipper.
What did Louis Pasteur's experiment prove? using the Swan Neck Flask and boiled broth, he found that even though it was exposed to air it never became contaminated concluding that air does not "carry poisons" that cause disease. Gave strong evidence for cell theory.
Can Spontaneous generation be disproven? No, it's just that scientific evidence suggests that cell theory is still correct. Life (cells) can only come from pre-existing life (cells)
Who conducted the "Blender Experiment"? In 1952, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase used a kitchen blender to show that organism's genetic info is stored in DNA not proteins.
Part 1 of "Blender Experiment" phage pop. w/radio active proteins but no radioactive label in DNA allowed to attach to bacteria cell (E coli) & injected DNA, protein coat remained on outside of cell. Blender caused empty protein coats to fall off. New phage in cell was NOT radioactive
Part 2 of "Blender Experiment" Phage population w/ radio active DNA but no radioactive label in protein. Phage attached to bacteria cell (E.coli) and injected DNA blender caused protein coats to fall off cell. New phage in cell was radioactive.
How do Antibodies work? Nucleus uses messengerRNA to signal ribosome which takes message & makes proteins/antibodies Antibody must get to cell membrane, the golgi apparatus surrounds it in a bubble made of the same material as the cell membrane (vesicle) & transports it there
What was the Miller-Urey Experiment? 1953 experiment that may explain what occurred on primitive Earth billions of years ago. Sent an electrical charge through flask of a chemical solution-methane, ammonia, hydrogen & water(pre-biotic solution)
What were the results of the Miller-Urey experiment? at 1 week most of the ammonia and methane had been replaced with Carbon monoxide, nitrogen & amino acids (building blocks of protein & essential components of life)
Additional research from Miller-Urey Experiment still debates accuracy of recreating the chemical conditions of early earth. Amino Acids have since been found on meteorites(they could have been introduced from space)has been recreated w/ different ingredients & sparked discipline of prebiotic chemistry
Should all bacteria be killed? NO! Don't kill all bacteria, competition is keeping the populations controlled.
What is the Nucleus? The control centre of the cell. Acts like the brain of a cell. Contains DNA (info used to operate and recreate the cell)
How does bacteriophage 'devour' bacteria? The virus attaches to a bacteria cell and inserts it's own DNA. This tricks the cell into making more copies of itself, then destroys the cell, releasing more viruses into the surrounding fluid.
What are ways Bacteria can spread their DNA? Reproduction, releasing DNA upon death, and conjugation (which is connecting through pili that allows them to share genes).Can release enzymes that break down antibiotics before they can harm them. This is why resistant bacteria can eventually take over.
What is a virus? non living thing that causes infections, is made up of genetic material (DNA). A virus can enter a cell by attaching to a projection on the cell membrane, cells defence mechanism (enzymes) break down virus into pieces & put a piece outside its membrane.
Created by: cianieri