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chapter 10 and 11 ra

study for next week test

QuestionAnswer
Which of the following agencies was previously known as the Atomic Energy Commission? nrc
Which of the following are functions and/or responsibilities of (OSHA)? 1. Functions as a monitoring agency 2. Regulates occupational exposure to radiation 3. Responsible for regulations concerning the “right to know” of employees all
The main function of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to: Inspect imaging facilities Oversee the nuclear energy industry Regulate imaging facilities Oversee the nuclear energy industry
The ICRP functions as an enforcement agency for radiation protection purposes. True or False false
The NRC regulates and inspects x-ray imaging facilities. True or False false
The as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept presents an extremely conservative model with respect to the relationship between Ionizing radiation and potential risk True or False True
Which are responsibilities of a health care facility’s radiation safety committee? Assist in the development of radiation safety program Provide guidance for the radiation safety program Facilitate the ongoing operation of the radiation safety program all
Who is responsible for maintaining radiation monitoring records for all personnel and for providing counseling for individuals who receive monitor readings in excess of allowable limits belongs to the Designated radiation safety officer of a health care facility
A radiation safety officer must have sufficient authority, organizational freedom, and management to:Identify radiation safety problems,Initiate, recommend, or provide corrective action,Stop unsafe operations involving byproduct material all
To define ALARA, health care facilities usually adopt investigation levels, defined as Level I and Level II. In the United States, these levels are traditionally _______ to ______ the applicable regulatory standards 1/10; 3/10
What means “random in nature”? Stochastic
In general, nonstochastic effects occur only after large doses of radiation are received True or False true
Cancer induced by 2 Gy of radiation is compared with one induced by 0.2 Gy of radiation, the cancer induced by the larger dose is no worse than the cancer induced by the smaller dose but the chance of cancer from the larger dose is: Greater or Lesser greater
What is Mutagenesis? Damage to the reproductive cells of the human male and female that is caused by irradiation of sperm and ova before conception
Somatic effects of ionizing radiation that exhibit a threshold dose below which the effect does not normally occur and above which the severity of the biologic damage increases as the dose increases are classified as....: Deterministic effects
What is the cumulative effective dose (CumEfD) limit to the whole body of an occupationally exposed person who is 46 years old (in milisieverts) 460 mSv
essential concept underlying radiation protection is that any organ in the human body is vulnerable to damage from exposure to ionizing radiation True or False true
The annual occupational effective dose (EfD) limit does not include: 1. Personal medical radiation exposure from a procedure 2. Natural background radiation exposure 3. Radiation exposure received on the job 1 and 2
Medical imaging personnel almost always receive equivalent doses that are close to the annual effective dose limit. True or False False
Occasional exposure for the purpose of education and training of students under the age of 18 is permitted, provided that special care is taken to ensure that the annual effective dose limit of _____ mSv (_____ rem) is not exceeded 1; 0.1
Which of the following is not an x-ray beam limitation device? Collimator Filter Aperture diaphragm filter
When the speed of screen-film systems doubles, for example, when changing from a 200-speed to a 400-speed system, patient radiation exposure is _____ by approximately _____%. reduced; 50
What is the purpose of radiographic beam filtration? To increase beam hardness, thereby reducing patient skin dose and the dose to superficial tissues
What type of filter should be used to provide uniform density when radiographing a foot in the dorsoplantar projection? Wedge filter
To maximize reduction of radiation exposure to the patient following adequate immobilization, the radiographer should collimate the x-ray beam so that it is _______ shield the child’s reproductive organs when using a rare earth high speed film smaller than the margins of the image receptor and
When using digital fluoroscopy systems, making use of the last-image-hold feature can: Be an effective dose reduction technique
Depending on the area of the body being examined with a fluoroscopic image intensification system, for adult patients, a range of ______ kVp is generally used. 75 to 110
When performing a mobile fluoroscopic procedure, to reduce the radiation exposure to the patient, the radiographer must use a minimal source-to-skin distance of ____ cm (____ inches). 30; 12
When a fluoroscopic image is electronically amplified by an image intensification system, which of the following benefits results? 1. Increased image brightness 2. Saving of time for the radiologist 3. Patient dose reduction 1, 2, and 3
Current federal standards limit entrance skin exposure rates of general-purpose intensified fluoroscopic units to a maximum of _____ R/min (_____ × 2.58 × 10–4 C/kg/min). 10; 10
What is the cumulative effective dose (CumEfD) limit to the whole body of an occupationally exposed person who is 52 years old? (in rem) 52 rem
how is luminance measured candela per sqaure meter
When whole-body occupational exposure is controlled by keeping the effective dose (EfD) well below the upper boundary limit, the possibility of inducing stochastic effects of radiation is: Increased considerably,Increased slightly, or Minimized Minimized
Epidemiologic studies of atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero have provided conclusive evidence of a dose-dependent increase in the incidence of severe mental retardation for fetal doses greater than approximately _____ Sv (_____ rem). 0.4; 40
____________ conclusive proof exists that low-level ionizing radiation causes a statistically significant increase in the threat of malignancy. No
Effective dose (EfD) limits may be expressed for: 1. Whole-body exposure 2. Partial-body exposure 3. Exposure of individual organs 1,2, and 3
Which of the following groups are radiation protection standards organizations? 1. ICRP 2. NCRP 3. UNSCEAR 1,2, and 3
Why have scientists developed occupational and nonoccupational effective dose limits? To minimize the risk of harmful biologic effects to the general public, patients, and radiation workers
What dose limit concerns the upper boundary dose of ionizing radiation that results in a negligible risk of bodily injury or genetic damage? EFD limit
The NCRP recommends that radiation exposure be kept at which of the following levels? As low as reasonably achievable
Which of the following agencies is responsible for enforcing radiation safety standards? NRC
Determine the cumulative effective dose (CumEfD) to the whole body of an occupationally exposed person who is 27 years old. (milisieverts) 270 mSv
For radiation workers, such as medical imaging personnel, occupational risk may be equated with occupational risk in which of the following? Other industries that are generally considered reasonably safe
When exposed to radiation as part of their educational experience, 17-year-old students should not exceed an effective dose limit of _________ annually. 1.0 mSv
Responsibilities of facility’s radiation safety officer include which of the following? 1. Developing an appropriate radiation safety program 2. Maintaining radiation monitoring records personnel 3. Repairing all broken or defective equipment 1 and 2
To reduce exposure for pregnant xray techs and to control exposure of the unborn during sensitive periods , NCRP recommends a monthly eqd limit not exceeding ___ to the embryo/fetus and a limit during the entire pregnancy of... 0.5 mSv, 5.0 mSv
What is the annual occupational effective dose that applies to radiographers during routine operations? 50 mSv
Which of the following are classified as late deterministic somatic effects? 1. Cataract formation 2. Organ atrophy 3. Radiation-induced malignancy 1 and 2
Which agency is responsible for regulations regarding employees’ rights to know about hazards that may be present in the workplace? OSHA
Radiation exposure and associated risk of possible radiation-induced malignancy is the concept behind the establishment of the effective dose limiting system? True or False True
During a fluoroscopic examination, a resettable cumulative timing device times the x-ray beam-on time and sounds an audible alarm or temporarily interrupts the exposure after the fluoroscope has been activated for what length of time? 5 minutes
To visualize smaller and lower-contrast objects during interventional procedures, high-level-control fluoroscopy uses exposure rates that are _______ those normally used in routine fluoroscopy. Higher or Lower than higher
To meet radiation safety features, radiographic equipment must have a: 1. Correctly functioning control panel 2. Protective tube housing 3. Radiographic examination table designed to reduce patient radiation dose 1,2, and 3
Federal government specifications recommend a minimum total filtration of _____ mm aluminum equivalent for stationary (fixed) fluoroscopic x-ray units operating above 70 kVp. 2.5
The cassette front containing the carbon fiber absorbs approximately __ as much radiation vs aluminum or cardboard, resulting in a __ dose for the patient because ___ radiographic techniques are required to produce the image half; lower; lower
In standard image intensification fluoroscopy, an x-ray beam half-value layer (HVL) of 3 to 4 mm aluminum is considered acceptable when peak kilovoltage ranges from: 80 to 100
Digital radiography images can be accessed at several workstations at the same time, making image viewing very convenient for physicians providing patient care True or False True
When an exposed CR imaging plate is ready to be processed, a reading unit is used to scan the imaging plate with a helium-neon laser beam resulting in emission of violet light that is changed into an electronic signal by a device called a__. Photomultiplier tube
Computed radiography, because of its higher exposure latitude, makes grid use on the pediatric population less necessary than was previously believed True or False True
CR imaging has greater _______ flexibility than does conventional screen-film radiography. kilovoltage
Of the following procedures, which involve extended fluoroscopic time? 1. Biliary drainage 2. Stent and filter placement 3. Urinary or biliary stone removal 1, 2, and 3
When settings are changed from one mA to a neighboring mA station, the most that linearity can vary is _____% 10
The control panel, must be located behind a protective barrier that has a radiation-absorbent window that permits observation of the patient during procedures :True or False True
What material is commonly used in the tabletop of a radiographic examination table to make the tabletop as radiolucent as possible so that it will absorb only a minimal amount of radiation, thereby reducing the patient’s radiation dose? Carbon fiber material
Both alignment and length and width dimensions of the radiographic and light beams must correspond to within: 2% of the SID
What is the function of a filter in diagnostic radiology? To decrease the x-radiation dose to the patient’s skin and superficial tissue
HVL may be defined as the thickness of a designated absorber required to do what? Decrease the intensity of the primary beam by 50% of its initial value
A radiographic grid may be used more during CR imaging due to the photostimulable phosphor in the CR imaging plate being much more sensitive to scattered radiation before and after it is sensitized through exposure to a radiographic beam: True or False True
To minimize skin exposure to electrons produced by photon interaction with the collimator, how far below the collimator should the patient’s skin surface be? At least 15 cm below
Which of the following aluminum equivalents for total permanent filtration meets the minimum requirement for mobile diagnostic and fluoroscopic equipment? 2.5 mm aluminum equivalent
A radiographer will receive most of his/her occupational exposure from which type of radiation? scatter
What is the effective dose limit to the fetus of a pregnant radiologic technologist? 5 mSv/year or .5 mSv/month
What is the function of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement? Set standards for using radiation
What percentage of the primary exposure to the patient will reach a radiographer standing 1 meter away? .1%
What is the effective dose limit a radiation worker may receive to his/her whole body in one year? 50 mSv
A secondary barrier protects the technologist from which of the what type of radiation? scatter
What publication recommends limits of exposure to ionizing radiation? NCRP #116
Which of the following is a responsibility of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission? 1. Set x-ray manufacturing standards 2. Police manufacturing standards 3. Police the field of nuclear medicine 1,2, and 3
A "Radiation Area" warning sign must be visible in areas where the exposure rate exceeds ________. .05 mSv/hr
How far must a radiographer stand back during a mobile radiographic exposure? 2 meters
What device alerts the radiologist that 5 minutes of fluoroscopy has elapsed? Cumulative timer
Created by: jackie.winne