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Digestive System

Nutrition and digestion

TermDefinition
Producers Autotrophs
Consumers (Heterotrophs) - Need to ingest organic molecules in preassembled form - Chemical energy in bonds of food molecules
Essential Nutrients - Molecules wh/ must be ingested in preassembled form (cannot be synthesized by organism) - Malnourishment: absence of 1 or more essential nutrients; protein deficiency
Essential Amino Acids 8 needed (for humans) able to synthesize other 12 (plants are an incomplete sources of essential aa)
Essential Fatty Acids "certain" unsaturated fatty acids; rare deficiency
Essential Vitamins 13 essential for humans WATER SOLUBLE - Vit. B: coenzymes - Vit. C: connective tissue, immune system FAT SOLUBLE - Vit. A: responsible for pigment in eye - Vit. D: calcium absorption by bone - Vit E: antioxidant Vit. K: aids in blood clotting
Olestra "fake fat" that cannot be digested
Essential Minerals Inorganic Ex. Iron - carries O2 in rbc and ETC Calcium - bone/nerve conducting Phosphorus - ATP/DNA/bone Sodium & Potassium - osmoregulation/nerve conduction Magnesium & Zinc - cofactors for enzymes
Dietary Categories 1. Herbivores - plants 2. Carnivores - meat 3. Omnivores - both
Diverse Adaptations/Ways of Eating 1. Suspension Feeders 2. Substrate Feeders 3. Fluid Feeders 4. Bulk Feeders
Suspension Feeders Eats food suspended in H2O ex. Baleen whales + sponges
Substrate Feeders Eat what they live on/in ex. caterpillars, earthworms
Fluid Feedres Eat nutrient rich fluid ex. mosquitos, leeches (parasites feeding of blood from host) hummingbirds, bees (nectar from flowers)
Bulk Feeders Eats large pieces of food ex. Pythons
4 Stages of Food Processing 1. Ingestion - feeding 2. Digestion - breakdown into small molecules (intracellularly) 3. Absorption - nutrients into cells of body 4. Elimination - rid of digestive waste from food
Gastrovascular Cavity "sac" w/ one opening mouth/anus food in + waste out ex. hydra, planarian + flatworm
Alimentary Canal
Created by: Jennybhnguyen