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Biology Exam 3

Human Genetics, DNA Structure and Function, Gene Expression, Biotechnology

incomplete dominance no allele is completely dominant, heterozygous shows "blending"
codominance when different alleles are present, phenotypes of both are expressed in their pure form
pleiotropy one gene effects more than one phenotypic characteristics (e.g. Marfan Syndrome, Sickle Cell Anemia
Epistasis expression of gene that may be masked by alleles from second gene
polygenic inheritance phenotype by additive effects of 2 or more genes
DNA Polymerase enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA; important in DNA replication
RNA Polymerase an enzyme that is responsible for making RNA from DNA template
mRNA A minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins
tRNA small RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the ribosome for polymerization into the growing polypeptide chain when the anticodon of the tRNA pairs with a codon on the mRNA being translated
rRNA a molecular component of a ribosome, the cells essential protein factory. Strictly speaking, it does not make proteins. It makes polypeptides that go to make up the proteins
introns a segment of a DNA or RNA molecule that does not code for proteins and interrupts the sequence of genes
exons a segment of a DNA or RNA molecule that together containing information coding for a protein or peptide sequence
transcription nucleus; mRNA made by enzyme RNA Polymerase; RNA splicing; introns removed; exons left in; used as instruction for making protein
translation cytoplasm-on ribosomes made of protein and mRNA; synthesis of protein using mRNA as instructions; must get proper order if amino acids; start/stop codons; requires tRNA
protein end product of translation. It is made
silent mutation changing 3rd nucleotide may change amino acid due to redundancy in the triplet code
missense mutation changes one amino acid (usually from change in single nucleotide)
nonsense mutation get stop codon instead of amino acid and translation stops too soon
frameshift a deletion or insertion of nucleotides can change every amino acid that follows. Usually results in nonfunctional protein
progeria premature aging disorde; nucleotide 1824 changed from C to T, mRNA and protein is incomplete
stem cells undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide, through mitosis, to produce more stem cells
restriction enzymes cut up foreign DNA, into fragments at specific locations, that gets into cell
Polymerase Chain Reaction makes millions of copies of DNA, then sent for sequencing, visualized by gel electrophoresis, or cloned into a plasmid for further experiments
gene cloning making copies of genes using bacteria
therapeutic cloning obtain embryonic stem cells that are a genetic match to patient; combine donor egg with cell from patient
reproductive cloning been done in sheep, horses, cattle, mice, cats, etc., against law for humans
transgenic organisms an organism that expresses DNA from another species through recombinant technology. Can be single cell or multicellular.
gene therapy
Created by: kellyannnicol
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