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Xela Bio notes

Bio notes cell division

s phase the part of a cell cycle (during interphase) in which the cell undergoes DNA Replication
interphase The portion of the cells life in which normal cell activities occur and the cell spends most of its life here.
M Phase The part of the cell cycle in which the cell divides (contains mitosis and cytokinesis).
Cell Cycle a diagram that identifies the stages of a cell.
Anaphase The 3rd stage of the nuclear division in which the chromosomes are pulled away from each other by the centrioles tugging on the spindle fibers.
Chromosome A highly condensed strand of DNA wrapped up with proteins-only visible in the M phase-Humans have 46(2 pairs of 23).
G Phase the part of the cell cycle during the G1 Phase in which a major checkpoint prevents the cell from undergoing cell division.
Sister chromatid 2 identical copies of a chromosome-generally shows connected by their centromere to form an X shape.
homologous 2 versions of the same chromosome. For example, Chromosome 3 from mother and chromosome 3 from father have the same type of genetic information, but may have different variations of the gene.
daughter cell the product of cell divisions. Mitosis produces two identical daughter cells and meiosis produces 4 unique daughter cells with only 1/2 the DNA from the original cell.
haploid A cell that has only 1 copy of each chromosome, shown as an n, which is only 1/2 the DNA from the original cell.
prophase The first step in nuclear division in which the chromatin condenses into chromosomes and the nuclear envelope begins to disappear.
mitosis The division of the nucleus; a form of asexual reproduction in some eukaryotic cells including animals.
meiosis a form of nuclear division that leads to the haploid cells preparation for sexual reproduction.
checkpoint A series of proteins that are responsible for ensuring that specific milestones have been met prior to allowing the cell cycles/cell division to occur.
metaphase the second stage of nuclear division in which the chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell attached by their centromeres to the spindle fibers.
telophase the final stage of nuclear division in which the chromosomes are completely separated from each other and a new nuclear envelope will eventually form.
G1 the part of the cell cycle in which the cell is undergoing normal cell growth and processes.
cytokinesis the division of the cytoplasm(everything outside the nucleus).
G2 the part of the cell cycle(during interphase) in which the cell prepares for division by making extra copies of organelles.
Created by: mr.miller