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Pathophysiology

AnswerQuestion
Sequelae The potential unwanted, usually damaging outcomes of a primary condition or disease, such as paralysis from a stroke?
Homeostasis The maintaining of a relatively stable internal environment by the body?
Infarction An area of dead cells resulting from a lack of oxygen, where the function of the tissue or organ may be lost?
Anaplasia Undifferentiated cells that have variable nuclei and cell structures and is the basis for the grading of a tumor?
Precipitating Factor Can trigger an acute episode of a condition or disease?
Predisposing Factor Indicates a high risk for development of a certain disease or condition but not the certain development of the disease?
Etiology and Predisposing Factors Prevention of a disease is linked to both .... for a specific disease?
Metabolic Acidosis Renal failure or the excessive loss of bicarbonate through severe diarrhea can result in the body pH imbalance?
Dysrhythmias Hypokalemia can cause an irregular, abnormal cardiac rhythm referred to as?
Diabetic Ketoacidosis Typical causes of dehydration include vomiting, excessive sweating, use of concentrated supplements, and?
Intracellular Two thirds of the water in humans is contained in this fluid compartment?
Hypercalcemia Decrease in bone density, especially in weight-bearing areas, and depression f neuromuscular activity are typical symptoms of the electrolyte imbalance referred to as:
Diuretics Drugs that cause increased excretion of water through the kidneys and urine production are classified as:
Hypocalcemia Hyperparathyroidism and malabsorption with effects such as tetany are characteristics of the electrolyte imbalance referred to as:
Respiratory Alkalosis Hyperventilation as a result of high anxiety or high fever may result in a pH imbalance known as:
Hyperkalemia The condition of high serum potassium levels as a result of renal failure is referred to as:
Hyponatremia Low sodium levels that may be caused by excessive sweating, vomiting, or diarrhea is a condition known as:
C Fibers Unmyelinated fibers that are involved in the transmission of chronic pain and thus transmit pain impulses slowly are:
Somatic Pain Originates in the skin, bone, or muscles and is conducted by sensory fibers is called:
Nociceptors Free sensory nerve endings are:
Threshold The level of stimulation required to perceive pain:
Neuroleptanesia A type of general anesthesia where the patient can respond to demands but is unaware of the procedure and does not experience any discomfort is called:
A Delta Fibers Myelinated nerve fibers that rapidly transmit acute pain information from the sensory fibers to the central nervous system
Paleospinothatmic Tract Tract in the spinothalamic bundle that carries slower impulses for chronic pain is:
Reticular Activating System The system that informs the brain of incoming pain stimuli is the:
Visceral Pain Pain that originates in the organs and is conducted by the sympathetic fibers is called the:
Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation First-aid directives for injury-related inflammation often recommends this four step approach:
Contracture When scar tissue restricts the range of movement in a joint, which may eventually result in fixation or a deformity of the joint, this is referred to as:
Compromised Metabolic Needs The growth of children is often affected during the acute phase of burn recovery due to:
Granuloma A small nodular area of cells and/or debris that forms in injured tissue that becomes chronically inflamed is called:
Chemotaxis When leukocytes move in the direction of a chemical stimulus to the inflammation site, this process is called:
Glucocorticoids This group of drugs consists of natural or synthetic steroids that are extensively used in the treatment of various inflammatory disorders but that also have significant undesirable side effects such as promoting osteoporosis.
Ulcer An open, painful, usually craterlike sore that often results from a severe or prolonged inflammation is called:
Eosinophils Increased numbers of _________ usually indicate an allergic reaction or a parasitic infection.
Histamines The sensation of pain in the inflammatory response activates mast cells and basophils to release:
Rule of Nines A method for rapid calculation of the percentage of the body affected by burns that assigns a numerical value to body parts assigns a numerical value to body parts and regions is called the:
Cocci Spherical or ball-shaped bacteria are classified as:
Pathogenicity The capacity of an organism tp cause disease is referred to as:
Bacteriophages Viruses that specifically infect bacteria are called:
Incubation Period The period of time between entry of the organism and appearance of clinical signs is called the:
Septicemia A dangerous condition in the case of systemic infection in which pathogens are circulating and reproducing in the blood is referred to as:
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Method A type of diagnostic test that determines effective antibiotic dose for treating a specific infection is called the:
Microbiostatic The mode of action of antimicrobial drugs in which the organisms are not killed but their growth is inhibited is referred to as:
Protozoal Malaria is an example of what type of infection?
Opportunistic Infection Fungal infections in which a normally harmless resident fungus becomes a pathogen is called a(n):
Secondary response happens faster than primary. One of the most significant differences between the primary and secondary immune response is that the:
Basophil The type of leukocyte that contains chemical mediators and plays an important part in the allergic and inflammatory responses is the:
Memory Cells Cells that are responsibe for long-term immunity because of the recognition of antigens that have previously activated the immune system are called:
B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes Two forms of lymphocytes are the:
B lymphocyte The type of lymphocyte responsible for the production of antibodies (immunoglobulins) is the:
Opportunistic Immunodeficiency predisposes individuals to infections in general but particularly to microorganisms that are:
Xenograft Transplant involving the replacement of the heart valve with a pig heart valve is an example of:
Immunity The body's capacity to respond and defend against the presence of any foreign substances is called:
IgA The immunoglobulin that is found in tears and saliva is:
Major histocompatibility complex A group of genes that are responsible for the production of self-antigens is called the:
Hematocrit The percentage of blood composed of RBCs is referred to as the:
Hematopoiesis The development of blood cells is called:
Serum The term for whole blood minus cells and clotting elements (fibrogen) is:
Leukemia A neoplastic blood disorder in which one or more types of leukocytes are undifferentiated, immature, or nonfunctional is reffered to as:
Polycythemia The blood disorders characterized by an overproduction of erythrocytes and other cells in the bone marrow is referred to as:
Thrombocytopenia One of the signs/symptoms of aplastic anemia is flat, red, pinpoint hemorrhages on the skin that bleed excessively and are referred to as:
Megaloblastic Anemia An anemia characterized by large, immature, nucleated erythrocytes is called:
Monocytes Leukocytes that can enter the tissue and become macrophages are called:
Chorionic Villis Assay and Amniocentesis Prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia can be done by:
Hemophilia A The most common inherited disease that is caused by a deficit or abnormality clotting factor VIII is referred to as:
Iron Deficiency Anemia Microscopically, the erythrocytes appear hypochromic and microcytic in the case of:
Myeloplastic Syndrome A syndrome that is caused by inadequate cell production by the bone marrow, and that can occur after chemotherapy or radiation treatment is referred to as:
Stenosis The narrowing of an aortic or pulmonary valve that restricts the forward blood flow is referred to as:
AV Node and bundle of His Heart block occurs when the conduction is excessively delayed or stopped at the:
Subacute and acute Infective endocarditis, formerly called bacterial endocarditis, occurs in two forms:
Atheroma's Plaques consisting of lipids, cells, fibrin, and debris, often with attached thrombi that can obstruct arteries and arterioles are referred to as:
Arteriosclerosis A general term for all types of arterial changes, but most often with attached thrombi that can obstruct arteries and arterioles, are referred to as:
Essential, Secondary, Malignant Hypertension can be classified into the following 3 categories:
Phlebothrombosis A venous disorder in which thrombus forms spontaneously in a vein without prior inflammation is referred to as:
Tetraology of Fallot The combined abnormalities of pulmonary valve stenosis, ventricular septal defect, dextroposition of the aorta, and right ventricle hypertrophy are part of the congenital abnormality known as:
Vein valve damage, wearing tight clothing, and inherited traits Factors that may lead to the formation of varicose veins include:
Group A Streptococcus Rheumatic fever is an acute systemic inflammatory disease that can develop as a complication of infection by:
Congenital heart defects Structural defects of the heart that generally develop during the first 8 weeks of embryonic life are referred to as:
Infection The primary cause of septic shock:
Lymphedema A condition in which the extremities swell due to an obstruction of the lymphatic vessels is called:
Multiple Myeloma A neoplastic disorder involves malignant plasma cells that eplavce the bone marrow and erodes bone is referred to as:
Unicentric and multicentric The two types of Castleman Diseases are:
Emphysema A form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that is abnormal, permanent enlargement of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles is called:
Aspiration The passage of fluid, solid particles, or vomitus into the trachea and lungs is referred to as:
A Coronavirus Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a respiratory illness caused by:
Diffuse alveolar and epithelial damage Adult Respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is result of:
Bound to the hemoglobin In the blood, about 99% of the oxygen is:
Tidal volume The amount of air moving in and out of the lungs with normal breathing is referred to as:
Medulla Oblongata The cough reflex is controlled by the center for coughing in the:
Person to person by coughing/sneezing Influenza is caused by a virus and is spread mainly by:
Respiratory syncytial virus Bronchiolitis, a common infection in young children , is caused by:
Dyspnea A subjective sensation of discomfort when a person is unable to inhale enough air is referred to as:
Medulla oblongata and the pons The primary control centers for breathing are located in the:
Rhochi Deep, harsh breathing sounds resulting from thick mucus are referred to as:
Bacterial infection When sputum is thick, yellowish-green, and cloudy, it is often as indication of:
Myxedema A severe form of hypothyroidism that occurs in adults and results in hypotension, hypoglycemia, and loss of consciousness is called:
Neuropathy and infections Some typical chronic complications of diabetes include:
Excessive release of ADH Inappropriate ADH syndrome causes excessive fluid retention and is caused by:
Maturity onset diabetes of the young Which type of diabetes is a rare form cause by nutation in an autosomal dominant gene:
Addison's Disease An adrenal cortex disorder most commonly caused by autoimmune reaction and resulting in a deficiency of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and adrogens is called:
Adrenal Medulla The part of the adrenal gland that releases epinephrine and norepinephrine upon stimulation by:
A sensor, and integrating center, and an effector The release of hormones is controlled by a feedback system involving:
Cushing's Syndrome A disorder of the adrenal glands caused by an excessive amount of glucocorticoids such as hydrocortisone or cortisol is called:
Mature onset diabetes Type 2 diabetes used to be referred to as:
Problems following a surgery, an autoimmune disorder, or congenital defects Hypoparathyroidism may be caused by:
Transverse, descending, and sigmoid The three sections of the large intestine, in order from the ascending colon to the anus, are:
Acids/bases and electrolytes A common complication associated with digestive system disorders involves a significant change in the balance of:
Hepatitis C The type of hepatitis most commonly transmitted by blood transfusions is:
Fatty Diarrhea Steatorrhea refers to:
Muscularis, serosa, and lymph nodes The later stages of stomach cancer usually involve the:
Strength of lower esophageal sphincter and pressure on either side of the sphincter The severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease primarily depends on:
Duodenum The final breakdown of carbohydrates takes place in the:
Allergic reactions to food or drugs Gastroenteritis is commonly caused by infections but can also be due to:
Neural and hormonal control The activities of the digestive system are under:
Blood in vomit Hematemesis refers to:
Azotemia One of the diagnostics indicators or chronic renal failure is the presence of nitrogen wastes in the blood, referred to as:
Reducing hypertension and inflammation Treatment for nephritic syndrome is focused primarily on:
Acute renal failure In pyelonephritis, the bilateral obstruction caused by the infection often leads to:
Decreased sodium intake Nephrosclerosis involves vascular changes in the kidney. A dietary change that will help treat this condition is:
Inhibits sodium chloride reabsorption in the tubules The most common group of drugs that can increase urine output has a mechanism of action that:
A defective bladder valve Vesicoureteral reflux, a congenital disorder, is caused by:
An upper respiratory infection Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis usually starts as:
Escherichia Coli The most commone causative organism responsible for urinay tract infections is:
Nephrons Each kidney contains more than one million of the functional units that filter the blood and are called:
Displaced out of normal position Ectopic kidney is a congenital condition where the kidney and ureter are:
Fallopian tubes The actual site of fertilization in a normal pregnancy is the:
Carcinoma of the cervix The Pap smear is a test used to diagnose the early stages of:
Luteinizing hormone The hormone that is responsible for triggering the release of an ovum is:
Excessive estrogen stiulation A major contributing factor to the development of carcinoma of the ureters is:
Sexually Transmitted Disease The majority of pevic inflammatory disease infections arise from:
Ductal Epithelium Among the different types of breast carcinomas, most arise from:
Endometriosis The presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus on structures such as ovaries, ligamnets, or colon is referred to as:
Cancer of the testis The most common solid tumor in young men is a result of:
A retroverted uterus A uterus that is lipped backwards and may be excessively curved or bent is referred to as:
Involvement of lymph nodes, size, and spread of a tumor Staging is based on:
Benign tumore rarely cause systemic effects whereas malignant ones often do One of the main differences between the effects of benign tumors and those of malignant tumors is:
Prophylactic measures Actions such as limiting UV exposures refraining from smoking, and using chemotherapy after tumor surgery to help prevent metastases are classified as:
As irregularly shaped and varying in size Cells in a malignant tumor appear:
basal cell carcinoma The most common form of skin cancer
Paraneoplastic syndromes Additional problems associated with certain tumors are referred to as:
Radiation One treatment that is most effective with certain tumors are referred to as:
Carcinogenesis The process by which normal cells transformed into cancer cells is called:
Oncogenes A person's genetic predisposition to cancer may be revealed by the presence of:
Tumor markers Substances such as enzymes, antigens, and hormones present in the circulation that can be used for cancer screening, to confirm a diagnosis, or to monitor the clinical course of a malignancy are called:
A karyotype For diagnostic purposes, chromosomes can be lined up forming a graphic called:
Klinefelter Syndrome The disorder that involves the presence of an extra X sex chromosome is referred to as:
Phenotype Hair color, eye color, and general appearance are examples of an individuals:
Toxoplasmosis, Other, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes TORCH is an acronym for routine prenatal screening that stands for:
Down Syndrome A chromosomal disorder in which there is a third #21 chromosome is called:
Congenital anomalies Disorders or defects that are present at birth and may be caused by genetic problems, environmental factors, infections, or teratogenic agents are referred to as:
Amniocentresis The diagnostic procedure in which a small amount of amniotic fluid is extracted and evaluated is called:
Both parents must have the defective gene In a single-gene, autosomal recessive disorder, in order for the offspring to have the disorder:
Amplifies the amount of DNA for gene analysis The polymerase chain reation (PCR) is a technique that:
Proteomic Research The type of research that has produced products referred to as designer drugs is:
Senescence The period of life from old age to death is referred to as:
Obesity and diabetes Osteoarthritis in the elderly can lead to the development of multiple disorders, such as:
Atherosclerosis A pathologic change in the cardiovascular system that involves degenerative changes in the arteries, promoting the accumulation of cholesterol in the walls of large arteries, is called:
Dyspareunia The term for painful sexual intercourse, which in old age is often a result of decreased levels of sex hormones, is:
Created by: adouglass