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Biology Cell Differentiation and Enzymes Vocab quiz

embryo an unborn or unhatched offspring in the process of development
differentiation the process by which cells become specialized
stem cells the unspecialized cells from which differentiated cells develop
totipotent able to do everything, as far as forming all tissues in the body
blastocyst a hollow ball of cells with a cluster of cells inside
pluripotent capable of developing into many, but not all, of the body's cell types
embryonic stem cells found in the inner cells mass of the early embryo
multipotent can produce many types of differentiated cells
harvesting gathering stem cells from an embryo
catalyst a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change
enzymes protein acting as biological catalysts that speed up the chemical reactions of the cell
activation energy the energy required to start a reaction
substrate the substance acted upon by an enzyme
active sites places on enzymes to which a specific substrate binds
denature the breaking of many of the weak linkages, or bonds (e.g., hydrogen bonds), within a protein molecule
catalase an enzyme found in potatoes that catalyzes the oxidation of a particular substrate by hydrogen peroxide
peroxidase an enzyme found in turnips that catalyzes the oxidation of a particular substrate by hydrogen peroxide
protease breaks down proteins
lipase breaks down lipids
catabolism breakdown of complex molecules into two simpler molecules
anabolism use of enzymes to build complex molecules from simpler molecules
enzyme specificity the compatibility of the shape of the active site and the shape of the enzyme
noncompetitive inhibition occurs when another part of the enzymes bonds with a molecule that is not the substrate and the bonding occurs at a second site, called the allosteric site
competitive inhibition occurs when a substance binds to the active site of an enzyme and prohibits normal substrate interaction
Created by: VickieJ10