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Microbiology

Exam 2 Review

QuestionAnswer
what is pasteurization and what are the degrees/times? (ch. 7) reduces the number of spoilage bacteria in milk/ 72 degrees Celsius for 15 seconds/ 63 degrees celsius for 30 min
what are the 3 mechanisms used for adherence? (ch. 15) -Glycocalyx -Fimbriae -M proteins
what is the outcome of the lysogenic cycle? phage DNA is incorporated into the host DNA and the virus remains latent
what is a latent disease/ give an example (ch. 15) periods where patient has no symptoms/ herpes virus (chicken pox/ shingles)
what is the hepa filter and when is it used? (ch. 7) air filtration used for heat sensitive things
what is a secondary infection/ give example (ch. 15) infection that occurs after a primary infection/ pneumonia
what is an autoclave/ explain the process sterilizer of bacteria and endospores/ 121 degrees celsius/ 15 psi/ 15 minutes
what is an endemic disease and give an example (ch. 14) disease constantly present in a population/ common cold or flu
what are some examples of a virus that causes cancer? (ch. 13) HPV causes cervical cancer; hepatitis B can cause liver cancer
name the 5 portals of entry/ 2 infections that go through each? (ch 15) -skin: -respiratory tract: common cold, pneumonia -gastrointestinal tract: typhoid fever, cholera -genitourinary tract:HIV infection, genital warts -parenteral route: HIV, hepatitis viruses
what chemicals are the gold standard? (ch. 7) phenols
what is chlorohexidine used for? preoperative/ skin degermining
what are 2 examples of surface active agents? mouth wash, soap
what effect does botulinum have on its host? prevents muscles from contracting (paralysis) prevents wrinkles in skin, botox
what is the additional step of the lytic cycle when a virus infects an animal cell? uncoding
what are 2 differences between normal and transient biota? normal: always present, good/ don't cause disease transient: short period of time/ cause disease
aldehydes are what? (2 things) sterilants/ inactivate proteins
what does LD (50) mean? amount of toxin required to kill half the population (lethal dose); the lower the number, the more toxic
what factors affect the effectiveness of treatment? -time of exposure -number of microbes -environment -microbial characteristics
what is the definition of etiology? the cause of a disease
T/F: a virus always contain DNA? false; a virus always contain either DNA or RNA but never both
what is the most common portal of entry? respiratory tract (easiest/ most effective)
what is the definition of antisepsis? removing pathogens from living tissue (cleaning a wound)
what is an example of a food preservative? benzoic acid
Created by: yulissalira