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A&P Ch.17,18,19

Respiratory, urinary and fluid acid base balance

Bronchi Bronchi are the main passageway into the lungs. When someone takes a breath through their nose or mouth, the air travels into the larynx. The next step is through the trachea, which carries the air to the left and right bronchus.
Trachea Is a rigid tube about 4.5 inches long and 1 inch wide. C-shaped rings of cartilage encircle the trachea to reinforce it and keep it from collapsing during inhalation.
Larnyx lying between the root of the tongue and the upper end of the trachea, the larnyx is a chamber formed by walls of cartilage and muscle. because it contains the vocal cords its often callled the voice box.
nasal cavity (nasal fossa, or nasal passage) is a large air filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. Each cavity is the continuation of one of the two nostrils.
pharnyx A muscular tube also called the throat, is just behind the nasal and oral cavities.
Nasopharnyx Extends from the posterior nares to the soft palate. it contains openings for the right and left auditory (Eustachian tube)
Surfactant Lipoprotein secreted by alveolar cells that decrease surface tension of the fluid lining the aveoili, permitting expanson.
Normal respiratory rate for the adult 12-20 breaths per minute
What does oxygen bond to in the blood The Iron portion of hemoglobin, creating oxyhemoglobin
Structures of the upper respiratory tract Nose, nasopharnyx, oropharnyx, larynophanyx and larnyx
Purpose of respiratory mucosa portion of the respiratory tract are lined with a mucous membrane, or mucosa. Specialized epithelial cells secrete mucus The mucus cleans and protects the air passages by trapping bacteria and debris while the cilia propel the mucus across the surface.
Muscle of pulmonary ventilation The Diaphragm
Pons contains two breathing centers that can influence basic breathing, the apneustic center and the pneumotaxic center.
Medulla The main breathing center in the brain
Diaphragm Contracts ,flattens and drops, pressing the abdominal organs downward and enlarging the thoracic cavity.
Filtration taking air into the lungs is called inhalation or inspiration, and the process of breathing it out is called exhalation or expiration. , your respiratory system filters out foreign matter and organisms that enter through the nose and mouth.
Diffusion gas diffuses from a high area of pressure to a low area
osmosis Osmosis is the movement of water or other solvent through a plasma membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration. Osmosis is passive transport, meaning it does not require energy to be applied.
apnea Temporary cessation of breathing
asphyxia a condition arising when the body is deprived of oxygen, causing unconsciousness or death; suffocation.
Dyspnea difficult or labored breathing
Tachypnea abnormally rapid breathing
Epiglottis a flap of cartilage at the root of the tongue, which is depressed during swallowing to cover the opening of the windpipe.
Glottis the part of the larynx consisting of the vocal cords and the slitlike opening between them. It affects voice modulation through expansion or contraction.
viseral pleura The visceral pleura is the delicate serous membrane that covers the surface of each lung
parietal pleura The parietal pleura is the outer membrane which is attached to the inner surface of the thoracic cavity
pnuemothorax occurs when air leaks into the space between your lung and chest wall.
pneumonia lung infection
alveoli the lung passages all exist to serve the aveoli because its within the aveoli that gas exchange occurs.
soft palate back of roof of the mouth
hard palate top of mouth
uremia A condition involving abnormally high levels of waste products in the blood.
oliguria defined as a urine output that is less than 1 mL/kg/h in infants, less than 0.5 mL/kg/h in children, and less than 400 mL or 500 mL per 24h in adults - this equals 17 or 21 mL/hour.
function of the urinary system helps keeps the body balance, expels waste from the blood
nephron regulate the concentration of water and soluble substances like sodium salts by filtering the blood, reabsorbing what is needed and excreting the rest as urine
tubule each of the long, fine, convoluted tubules conveying urine from the glomeruli to the renal pelvis in the vertebrate kidney. Water and salts are reabsorbed into the blood along their length.
convoluted tubule Specifically, the hormone aldosterone will cause the reabsorption of sodium, and therefore water, in the distal tubule and collecting ducts.
collecting tubules Image result for collecting tubuleen.wikipedia.org Renal collecting tubule, also called duct of Bellini, any of the long narrow tubes in the kidney that concentrate and transport urine from the nephrons,
function of kidney he kidneys are two bean-shaped organs that extract waste from blood, balance body fluids, form urine, and aid in other important functions of the body.
diuretic also called water pills, helps body expel fluid
anti-hypertensive are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). also called a diuretic
urethra the duct by which urine is conveyed out of the body from the bladder
pyramids are cone-shaped tissues of the kidney. In humans, the renal medulla is made up of 10 to 18 of these conical subdivisions.
ureter Image result for ureterpatients.uroweb.org The ureter is a tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
glomerulus a cluster of capillaries around the end of a kidney tubule, where waste products are filtered from the blood.
pressure gradient fluid in intraveneous tubing flows because the differences in pressure between two strucutures
aldosterone is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. It is essential for sodium conservation in the kidney, salivary glands, sweat glands and colon.
cause of fluid imbalance fluid volume, fluid concentration or the distribution of fluid between compartments
normal ph of the blood 7.35-7.45 neutral is 7
acidosis Acidosis is caused by an overproduction of acid in the blood or an excessive loss of bicarbonate from the blood (metabolic acidosis) or by a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood that results from poor lung function or depressed breathing (respiratory ac
alkalosis s excessive blood alkalinity caused by an overabundance of bicarbonate in the blood or a loss of acid from the blood
how does the body keep acids and bases in control in the body mechanism's called buffers help to keep balance
hypovolemia volume depletion of fluid.
dehydration when the body eliminates more water than sodium
hypokalemia low potasium level
hypo-Na-tremia Hyponatremia is a condition that occurs when the level of sodium in your blood is abnormally low. Sodium
hypernatremia high level of sodium
Renal pelvis the broadened top part of the ureter into which the kidney tubules drain.
urinary bladder a colapsible muscular sac.
intersitial fluid tissue fluid
intercelluar fluid It bathes and surrounds the cells of the body, and provides a means of delivering materials to the cells, intercellular communication, and removal of metabolic waste.
extracellular fluid all fluid from outside the cells
metabolism metabolic processes that break down large molecules. These include breaking down and oxidizing food molecules. The purpose of the catabolic reactions is to provide the energy and components needed by anabolic reactions which build molecules.
hypercalcemia Too much calcium in the blood.
Created by: 1140663099368369