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Unit test review

Intro unit and Skin review

QuestionAnswer
What is Anatomy the study of structure
What is Physiology the study of function
What is proximal? A point closer to the point of attachment of a limb then another point.
What is distal? A point farther from the point of attachment of a limb then another point
The wrist is ___________ to the elbow distal
The wrist is _________ to the fingertips proximal
What is lateral? Away from the midline
What is medial? Toward the midline of the body
The eyes are _________ to the ears medial
The eyes are _______ to the nose lateral (and slightly posterior)
What is anterior Toward the front
What is posterior? Toward the rear
The heart is _______ to the spine anterior
The heart is _______ to the lungs medial
Name the levels or organization from smallest to largest chemicals, cells, tissues, organs, organ system, organism
The heart would be an example of what level or organization? the organ level
What level of organization is below (smaller) than the heart? heart tissue (cardiac muscle tissue)
What level of organization is above (larger) than the heart? the cardiovascular system (includes the heart and blood vessels)
What is homeostasis? Feedback mechanisms to maintain variables within a normal range in the body such as pH, blood calcium or body temperature.
Describe the two true layers of the skin epidermis (thin, top layer, mostly cells) and dermis (thick layer made of connective tissues)
Which layer is below the true skin and is mostly fat cells? Hypodermis
How do we tan? Melanocytes in the epidermis are stimulated to produce and release melanin that covers the nuclei of dividing stem cells in the epidermis to protect their DNA.
Why do we tan? To protect our dividing stem cells from damaging UV rays that would cause mutations in the DNA potentially leading to skin cancer.
Name the four cell types of the epidermis Dendritic, keratinocytes, tactile, melanocytes
Describe keratinocytes The most abundant cell in the epidermis. Produces keratin protein that waterproofs and protects the surface of the skin.
Distinguish between tactile and dendritic cells Both are found in the epidermis. Tactile are in the stratum basale for sensory information and dendritic are throughout the epidermis for protection (1st line of defense)
Name 6 functions of skin (and accessory structures) protection, Vitamin D synthesis, thermoregulation, sensory, excretion of wastes (sweat), insulation (hair)
What are the evolutionary benefits of darker skin at the equator? The melanin shields the blood from strong UV rays protecting the folate from breaking down which could lead to severe birth defects. (skin cancer is individual protection but not evolutionary)
What are the evolutionary benefits of lighter skin toward the poles? Lighter skin can more easily synthesize vitamin D and is at less risk of folate damage because the UV rays aren't as strong.
What are the functions of nails? protection, increased sensory, scratching, manipulation
What are the functions of hair insulation, sensory, UV protection, cushions blows (head)
What is the skin's role in thermoregulation (temperature regulation) The skin helps cool the body by secreting sweat which evaporates and removes heat; dilating blood vessels to bring blood to the surface to lose heat. The skin helps warm the body by erecting the hairs to trap air and keep the body warmer. It constricts blood vessels at the skin to conserve body heat in the core.
Created by: PRO Teacher jhaase