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Biology Test

dehydration synthesis removal of H from 1 molecule and OH from a second molecule in order to connect the 2 molecules. (removing water)
synthesis process of putting together small molecules to make larger molecules
hydrolysis addition of H and OH in order to break covalent bond between molecules
function of carbohydrates to provide energy
monomer of carbohydrates saccharides
examples of simple sugars monosaccharides= fructose, glucose disaccharide= maltose, sucrose
examples of polysaccharides glycogen- stored energy in animals starch- stored energy in plants cellulose- cell walls; not digestible; known as fiber
shape of carbohydrate 5 or 6 sided ring
carbohydrate foods fruits, veggies, legumes (for fiber)
function of lipids pigments, sterols, waxes, energy
phospholipids function cell membranes
saturated fatty acids with C-C bonds; solids; animal fats
unsaturated fatty acids with C=C bonds; liquids; plant fats
lipid foods butter, lard, cooking oils, chicken skin, avocados
function of proteins structural- bones, hair, feather, muscles, web chemical- transportation (hemoglobin, glucose) , antibodies (immune system), Enzymes
monomer of proteins amino acids
name of bond that holds amino acids together peptide bond
protein foods meat, fish, dairy, legumes, eggs
characteristics of life metabolism, homeostasis, heredity, reproduction, develop, grow.
metabolism all the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
heredity passing of traits from parent to offspring
homeostasis process that maintains an internal balance in the organism
reproduction process where organisms make more of their own kinds; how DNA is given to offspring
develop mature- organism changes from birth to death
grow add more cells
3 parts of the cell theory 1. all organisms are made of 1 or more cells 2. cells are the basic function of all life 3. cells come from other cells
cell parts of prokaryotes 1. cell wall 2. cell membrane 3. cytoplasm 4. ribosomes 5. DNA
difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes eukaryotes= contain nucleus and organelles prokaryotes= contain no nucleus and no organelles
ribosomes function assemble proteins
cell wall function structure and support (plants; cellulose)
DNA/chromosome function directs making of proteins and reproduction
golgi function packaging for distribution
mitochondria function make cellular energy- ATP
chloroplasts function assembles glucose- photosynthesis
cell membrane function regulates what enters and leaves the cell
rER function finishes off proteins
sER function makes lipids and destroys poisons
central vacuole function holds water and other ions (plants)
cytoplasm function metabolism- where most chemical reactions occur; location of organelles
nucleolus function assembles ribosomes
lysosomes function hydrolysis- break down macromolecules
peroxisomes function converts fats to carbs or changes toxins to benign
vesicles function transports
in order to have a nucleus a cell needs a __________ ____________. nuclear membrane
simple sugars are _________________ monosaccharides
plants use ___________ to support their stems, leaves, and roots. cellulose
in humans, cellulose serves as a source of _____________ fiber
two factors that determine shape of protein type and order of amino acids being used and the hydrogen bonds created due to the type and order of the amino acids.
Created by: etesta16