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Fundamentals

Nutrition

QuestionAnswer
What is the definition of nutrition? the science of optimal cellular metabolism and its impact on health and disease.
What is the definition of macronutrients? are the kilocalorie energy-containing sources of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
What are phytochemicals? plant compounds that have antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune boosting properties. Ex. lutein (grren color of vegetables) lycopene (found in high amounts in tomato products)
Nutritional status (Optimal) is? all nutrients are available in balanced amounts for cellular metabolism and physiological function for the individual
Nutritional status (Suboptimal or malnutritional stat) is? reflects either insufficient or excessive quantity or quality of macronutrients or micronutrients
What is digestion? the process of mechanical and chemical breakdown of food matter and complex form of macronutrients
What is absorption? food matter has been digested, the microscopic hair-like projections (villi) that line the intestinal tract absorb nutrients into capillaries which are then transported by the vascular system. the upper small intestine is the primary site for absorbing
What is elimination? Large food particles and undigested fiber are not absorbed they are eliminated through the colon. elimination is enhanced with adequate fluid, fiber intake, and physical activity
What is cellular metabolism? hormonal and enzymatic process that occur when cell structures allow proteins, carbohydrates, or fats to be used for energy or made into new products of tissue. adequate intake of macro and micronutrients is optimal for this to occur
What is insufficient nutrition? when there is inadequate intake, impaired nutrient absorption, or ineffective nutrient utilization occur, leading to a state of malnutrition`
What is excess nutrition? excessive calorie intake leading to weight gain
What are the risk factors for insufficient/excess nutrition? Age or life stage Ethnicity/race Poor and underserved Genetics Lifestyle and patterns of eating Personal food choices Underlying and medical conditions
Created by: Ekane34