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Skeletal: Bones, axial skeleton, appendicular skeleton, and joints
Muscular: Muscles and tendons
Integumentary: Skin, hair, nails, and glands in skin
Sensory: Eyes, ears, nose, skin receptors, and mouth
Cardiovascular: Heart, blood vessels, and blood
Lymphatic: Tonsils, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, and lymph fluid
Respiratory: Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Gastrointestinal: Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder
Endocrine: Hormones, pituitary gland, thyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas, and gonads
Nervous: Brain, spinal cord, ganglia, nerves, and sensory organs
Urinary: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
Reproductive: Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina in females; testes, ducts, penis, urethra, and prostate in males
Abdomin/o: Abdomen
Aden/o: Gland
Anter/o: Front
Bronch/i, bronch/o: Bronchus
Carcin/o: Cancer
Col/o: Colon
Cyt/o: Cell
Encephal/o: Brain
Hist/o, histi/o: Tissue
Lapar/o: Abdomen, loin or flank
Lymph/o: Lymph vessels
My/o: Muscle
Neur/o: Nerve
Ocul/o: Eye
Path/o: Disease
Pharmac/o: Drug
Pulmon/o: Lungs
Sept/o: Infection
Thorac/o: Chest/thorax
Trachel/o: Neck or necklike
Trich/o: Hair or hairlike
Ventr/i, ventr/o: Front of body
Viscer/o: Viscera (internal organs)
An / A- = without / lack of
• Ad- = near / toward
• Dys- = bad/difficult
• Endo- = inside
• Epi- = upon
• Hyper- = Excessive/ above/ high
• Hypo- = Under/ below/ low
• Intra- = within/ inside
• Tachy- = fast
• Brady- = slow
aemia = condition of blood
• -ectomy = removal
• -itis = inflammation
• -ology = study of
• -phasia = speech
• -phagia = eating / swallowing
Tonsillitis Infection and swelling of the tonsils
Appendectomy Removal of the appendix
Cardiology Study of the structure, functions and disorders of the heart
Perineal Perineal relating to the perineum-the area between the anus and the scrotum or vulva Perineal relating to or situated in the outer side of the calf of the leg
cervical cervical – narrow portion of the uterus, cervical – part of the c-spine
ileum or ilium ileum – part of the intestinal tract, ilium – the pelvic bone
malleus or malleolus malleus – middle ear bone, malleolus – bony protuberance of the ankle
dysphasia or dysphagia dysphasia – disorder of speech, dysphagia – difficulty swallowing
elephantiasis elephantiasis – parasite in lymphatic system causes thickening of skin and tissues
•Anterior/Ventral- Toward the front of the body.
•Posterior/Dorsal- Toward the back of the body.
•Supine- Body is lying face up.
•Prone -Body is lying face down.
•Lateral- Body is lying on the side, either left or right.
•Semi- Recumbent-Reclined position. Lying down, propped up at waist.
•Trendelenburg- Lying down, face up, legs elevated.
myocarditis = muscle layer of heart inflamed
pericarditis = outer layer of heart inflamed
endocarditis = inner layer of heart inflamed
cardiologist = a physician specializing in the heart
cardiomyopathy = damage to heart muscle layer
cardiomegaly = enlargement of the heart
-itis ) = inflammation tonsillitis, appendicitis (you know these!
-osis = abnormal condition cyanosis (of blueness, due to cold or low oxygen)
-ectomy = to cut out (remove) appendectomy, tonsillectomy (you know these too!)
-otomy = to cut into tracheotomy (to cut into the windpipe,temporary opening)
-ostomy = to make a
“mouth” colostomy (to make a permanent opening in colon)
a/an = without, none anemia (literally no blood but means few red cells)
micro = small microstomia (abnormally small mouth, see “stomy” in colostomy above?)
macro = large macrostomia (abnormally large mouth)
mega/ -megaly = enlarged megacolon (abnormally large colon = large intestine)
-scopy/ -scopic = to look, observe colonoscopy (look into colon)
-graphy/ -graph = recording an image mammography (imaging the breasts)
-gram = the image (X-ray) mammogram
-ology/ -ologist = study, specialize in cardiologist, nephrologist (study the heart, the kidneys)
Stomato = mouth stomatitis
Glosso/linguo = tongue glossitis, lingual nerve
Gingivo = gums gingivitis
Encephalo = brain encephalitis
Gastro = stomach gastritis
Entero = intestine gastroenteritis
Colo = large intestine colitis, megacolon
Procto = anus/rectum proctitis, proctologist
Hepato = liver hepatitis, hepatomegaly
Nephro/rene = kidney nephrosis, renal artery
Orchido = testis orchiditis, orchidectomy
Oophoro = ovary oophorectomy
Hystero/metro =uterus hysterectomy,
Salpingo = uterine tubes hysterosalpingogram
Dermo = skin dermatitis
Masto/mammo = breast mammography, mastectomy
Osteo = bones osteoporosis
Cardio = heart electrocardiogram (ECG)
Cysto = bladder cystitis
Rhino = nose rhinitis (runny nose!)
Phlebo/veno = veins phlebitis, phlebotomy
Pneumo/pulmo = lung pneumonitis, pulmonologist
Hemo/emia = blood hematologist, anemia
Leuk/o = white leukemia (overabundance of white blood cells)
melan/o = black melanoma (black tumor of the skin)
cyan/o = blue cyanosis (blueness may be due to cold or not enough oxygen in blood)
xanth/o = yellow xanthoma (yellow tumor)
Aden/o = gland adenoma
Lip/o = fat lipoma
My/o = muscle myoma
Lymph/o = lymph tissue lymphoma
Carcin/o = malignant carcinoma
Osteo/o = bone osteoma
Endo = within, inside of endoscopy (to inspect the inside of an organ or space with a lighted instrument)
Peri = around perianal (around the anus)
Circum = around circumcise (cut around)
Retro = behind retrosternal (behind the breastbone)
Epi = upon, on top epidermis (the top or outermost layer of skin)
Trans = through transurethral (through the urinary exit duct)
Intra = within intravenous (inside the veins, e.g. IV fluids)
Sub = below subclavian (below the clavicle = collar bone)
Cardi/o = heart Endocarditis, myocarditis, pericarditis (inflammation of the lining, the muscle layer, the outer layer of the heart)
Brady/tachy = slow/fast Bradycardia (rate<60) tachycardia (rate>100)
Angi/o = vessel Angiography, angiogram (X-ray of artery)
Veno/phlebo = vein Venogram (X-ray of veins), phlebitis (inflammation of veins)
-stasis = to stop Hemostasis (to stop bleeding), hemostat (a clamp-like instrument)
-cyte = cell Erythrocytes, leukocytes (red, white blood cells)
Hem/o, -emia = blood Hypoxemia (low oxygen), hematosalpinx (blood in the uterine tubes)
Atherosclerosias can become calcified and hard leading to arteriosclerosis, hardening of the arteries. s– Literally, “hardening of the fatty stuff.” High fat diets can lead to formation of fatty plaques lining blood vessels. These fatty are
Angina pectoris – Literally, “pain in the chest.”
Arrhythmia/dysrhythmia– Abnormal heart rates and rhythms all have special names like ventricular tachycardia, fibrillation, but generically are termed arrhythmias or dysrhythmia, meaning “no rhythm” and “abnormal rhythm.”
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) – “stroke”. A blood vessel in the brain may burst causing internal bleeding. Or, a clot may arise in a brain blood vessel (a thrombus), or arise elsewhere (embolus) and travel to get stuck in a brain vessel which then deprives brain tissue of oxygen.
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) –rm, a partial loss of vision, but the problem lasts less than 24 hours. A short period of insufficient blood supply to the brain can have the same signs and symptoms as a stroke such as weakness in an a
Aphasia – loss of speech.
Dysphasia - slurred speech
Dysphagia – Difficulty swallowing. May be related to GERD, esophageal tumor or other causes.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – Although the image produces the “slices” through the body seen by CT (see above), no X-rays are involved.
Gastr/o Stomach Gastritis, Gastrectomy
Hepat/o Liver Hepatitis (inflammation of), hepatoma (tumor of)
Chol/e Gall, bile Cholecystitis, cholecystectomy (inflammation of, removal of gallbladder)
Cyst/o Bladder, sac (see above)
Emes/o Vomit Emesis (vomiting), emetic (stimulating vomiting), antiemetic (stopping vomiting)
Lith/o Stone Cholelithotomy (removal of gall stones)
Lapar/o Abdominal wall Laparotomy (cutting into the abdomen)
-centesis To puncture Abdominocentesis (puncturing and draining)
-tripsy To crush Cholelithotripsy (smashing gall stones with sound waves)
-rrhea Flow, discharge Diarrhea
-iasis (-osis) - Abnormal condition Cholelithiasis (presence of gall stones causing symptoms)
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) –Severe “heartburn” (regurgitate, backup) into the esophagus and irritate and inflame the lining. This results in chest pain which can mimic that of angina (pain of cardiac ischemia or an MI).
Jaundice means “yellow” in French.result from blockage of the ducts draining bile from the liver into the intestines or excessive breakdown of red blood cells. Hemoglobin from destroyed RBCs is broken down, and in part, ends up in bile secretions.
Cirrhosis . – Literally, “orange-yellow” in Greek. A degenerative disease of the liver that often develops in chronic alcoholics, but can have other causes. The name refers to the gross appearance of the organ
Portal hypertension – A potential complication of chronic alcoholism resulting in liver damage and obstruction of venous blood flow through the liver. The rising blood pressure in the veins between the gastrointestinal tract and liver causes
Esophageal varices – bulging, engorged veins in the walls of the esophagus are often a complication of chronic alcoholism
Crohn’s Disease – a chronic inflammatory disease primarily of the bowel. Typical symptoms are abdominal pain, weight loss, severe diarrhea. There may also be rectal bleeding that can lead to anemia.
Peritonitis – Inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity.
Guaiac test (Hemoccult, Fecult) – a special chemical test to identify blood in the stool (feces). Blood in the stool may have many causes including cancer and hemorrhoids.
-ptysis Spitting (coughing) Hemoptysis (spitting or coughing up blood from lungs)
-plasty Reconstruction Rhinoplasty (surgical reconstruction of nose)
ABC: The 'ABC' of resuscitation or life support means to check Airways, Breathing and Circulation.
ACUTE: When applied to a medical condition, this term means 'of severe, sudden, but short duration'. As opposed to CHRONIC.
ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: Onset of sudden damage to part of the heart muscle, usually due to blockage of the heart's (coronary) arteries.
AFEBRILE vs FEBRILE: Without fever. As opposed to FEBRILE.
ALLERGY: Sensitivity to a foreign substance, resulting in a physical reaction such as rash or hay fever.
AMBULANT: Able to walk.
ANAEMIA: A decrease in the concentration of red blood cells or of HAEMOGLOBIN in the blood. May cause pallor (paleness) of the skin.
ANGINA: Cardiac pain due to poor blood supply to the heart.
ANOREXIA: Loss of appetite.
ANOXIA: Without oxygen
ANTI-ANXIETY (medication) : Prescribed drugs used to treat anxiety disorders.
ANTIBIOTIC: A drug that destroys bacteria.
ANTIBODY: A substance produced by the immune system to fight invading organisms such as viruses.
ANTIDEPRESSANT (medication): Prescribed drugs used to treat depression.
ANTIPSYCHOTIC (medication): Prescribed drugs used to treat psychosis.
AUTOIMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME: Commonly referred to as AIDS, it implies loss of immune system function.
Bilateral Salpingo Oophorectomy Removal of ovary and fallopian tubes from both sides
ARTHRITIS: Inflammation of a joint. See also INFLAMMATION
ASTHMA: A lung disease characterised by difficulty in breathing and by coughing and wheezing.
BASELINE BLOOD TEST: Basic tests done in initial stages of a medical investigation.
BCG: The 'Bacille Calmett-Guerin' (tuberculosis or TB) vaccination.
BRONCHITIS: Infection of the larger airways of the lungs.
Chronic vs CHRONIC: Long term (Chronic Back-pain) ACUTE: Short term (Acute back-pain)
CIRRHOSIS: Condition of the liver where it becomes shrunken, hardened and fails to function normally.
CONCUSSION: Loss of consciousness due to severe head injury.
CORONER: A magistrate appointed to investigate the cause of death in certain situations, for instance a sudden unexpected death.
CPR: Cardio-Pulmonary-Resuscitation (active combined resuscitation of the heart and lungs).
CVD: Cardio Vascular Disease
DISORIENTATION: Inability to recognise time or surroundings or identify oneself or another person.
DUPEYTRON'S CONTRACTURE: Deformity of the hand, with the fingers in a claw-like position.
DYSPNOEA: Difficulty in breathing.
ECG: Electrocardiogram. An electrical recording of activity of the heart. May indicate either angina or a heartbeat rhythm problem.
ECT: Electroconvulsive Therapy. Used in the treatment of severe depression.
EEG: Electro-encephalogram. An electrical recording of brain activity.
EMPHYSEMA: A lung disease with loss of lung tissue. Occurs in cigarette smokers.
EPILEPSY: The occurrence of convulsions (involuntary bodily movements) due to abnormal electrical discharges in the brain.
EPISTAXIS: Bleeding of the nose.
FISTULA: A site where one bodily organ has formed an abnormal opening into another. Abnormal passage.
GALLSTONES: A common disease where firm 'stones' accumulate in the gall bladder.
GASTRITIS: Inflammation of the lining of the stomach, with pain and/or vomiting.
GASTRO-ENTERITIS: Inflammation of the stomach and intestine, with vomiting and/or diarrhoea.
HAEMATEMESIS: Vomiting of pure blood or blood mixed with stomach contents.
HAEMATOMA: Medical name for a well demarcated 'bruise'.
HAEMATURIA: Blood in the urine.
HAEMOGLOBIN: A complicated iron-containing protein and found in red blood cells. It carries oxygen to the tissues. See also ANAEMIA.
HAEMOPTYSIS: Coughing up of blood. May be difficult to distinguish from HAEMATEMESIS.
HAEMORRHAGE: Loss of blood from the body, either internally or externally.
HALLUCINATION: A false sensory perception of one or more of the senses (vision, hearing, taste, smell, touch).
HEPATITIS: Inflammation of the liver; usually due to toxic substances such as alcohol or to viral infections such as the Hepatitis C virus.
HERNIA: The abnormal protrusion of the contents of one part of the body into another.
HOSPICE: A small hospital for the terminally ill.
HYPO vs HYPER VENTILATION: Hypo -reduced amt of air enters the alveoli in the lungs, resulting in decreased levels of O2 n increased levels of CO2 in the blood. Hypo- can be due to breathing that is too shallow (hypopnea) or too slow (bradypnea), or to diminished lung function.
HYPO vs HYPER Glycemia: Low or High Blood Sugar
HYPO vs HYPER TENSION: Low or High Blood pressure
HYPO vs HYPER THERMIA: Low or high temp
Tachycardia vs Bradycardia: If the heart rate is more than 100 beats per minute it is called tachycardia and if it is less than 60 beats per minute it is identified as bradycardia.
3 Signs n Symptoms of Diabetes? POLYURIA - excessive urination / POLYPHAGIA - excessive eating / POLYDYPSIA - excessive thirst
INSOMNIA: Inability to sleep.
ISCHAEMIA: Lack of blood supply to an area of the body.
KORSAKOFF'S SYNDROME: Sufferers show amnesia and confabulation (filling in gaps in memory by guessing); due to the end stage of alcoholism.
MANTOUX TEST: A skin test given to assist in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.
MENINGITIS: Inflammation of the meninges, a collection of three protective membranes surrounding the brain.
MIGRAINE: A headache with specific characteristics and due to disturbances to the blood vessels in the head.
OEDEMA: Fluid in the tissues.
OESOPHAGUS: The part of the digestive tract between mouth and stomach.
ORIENTATION: The ability of a person to reliably establish their position regarding time, place and persons.
OVERDOSE: Administration of an excessive amount of a drug or substance into the body.
PALPITATIONS: Awareness of the heartbeat; not necessarily due to heart disease.
PANCREAS: A gland that lies behind the stomach. It produces insulin.
PANCREATITIS: Inflammation of the pancreas organ.
PARALYSIS: Loss of movement of any part of the body due to nerve damage.
PARANOIA: A form of schizophrenia involving delusions, hallucinations, fear of persecution, and undue suspicion of others.
PHLEBITIS: Inflammation of a vein.
PHOBIA: An irrational fear of a situation, person or object.
PNEUMONIA: Infection of the lung tissue.
PNEUMOTHORAX: Condition with increase in air pressure in the chest cavity resulting in collapse of the lung.
PROGNOSIS: The likely final medical outcome of an illness, in terms of time and condition.
PSYCHOSIS: An extreme derangement of the mind, due to mental illness, with total loss of judgment, memory and insight. It may be a temporary, intermittent or permanent condition.
PSYCHOSOMATIC: Bodily symptoms associated with a nervous complaint or psychological disorder.
PSYCHOTHERAPY: Counselling treatment for mental illness.
SCHIZOPHRENIA: A nervous disorder characterised by disturbances to normal thought processes.
SEPSIS: Infection.
ASCITES Fluid in abdomen
Coagulopathy bleeding disorder is a condition in which the blood's ability to coagulate (form clots) is impaired. Causes a tendency toward prolonged or excessive bleeding which may occur spontaneously or following an injury or medical / dental procedures.
Cholangitis bowel duct inflammation
Cholecystectomy (koh-luh-sis-TEK-tuh-me) vs Cholecystitis (ko-luh-sis-TIE-tis) Cholecystectomy- removal of gall bladder. Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs most commonly because of an obstruction of the cystic duct by gallstones arising from the gallbladder (cholelithiasis).
Abdominal Peritonitis Peritonitis is an inflammation of the peritoneum, the tissue that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers and supports most of your abdominal organs. Caused by infection from bacteria or fungi.
Portal hypertension Elevated tension in portal veins. Viagra (Sildenafil) is used treat it.
Hypervolemia vs Hypovolemia Hypervolemia, or fluid overload, is the medical condition where there is too much fluid in the blood. The opposite condition is hypovolemia, which is too little fluid volume in the blood.
Hyperperistalsis vs Hypoperistalsis Excessive rapidity of the passage of food through the stomach and intestine /decreased or absent intestinal peristalsis.
Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a rare congenital disease characterized by massive abdominal distension caused by a largely dilated non-obstructed urinary bladder (megacystis), microcolon n decreased or absent intestinal peristalsis.
Hysterectomy Removal of uterus
Hysteroscopy Visualisation of the uterus
Lobectomy Removal of lobe of the lung
Created by: Abraham321