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Forensic Intro

Unit 1 Forensic Science

Michigan v. Tyler a trial in which the verdict affirmed that a search warrant must be obtained quickly before a search can commence
Mincey v. Arizona a trial in which the verdict affirmed that search warrants must be obtained if there is reasonable time to obtain them
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals the 1993 court case that made judges the gatekeeper of the admissibility of evidence into a court proceeding; often referred to as the Daubert standard
Frye v. United States the 1923 court case that established the principle that scientific evidence is admissible only when it is accepted as reliable according to current scientific standards; is often referred to as the Frye standard
S I base unit an SI unit that is not the result of the combination of other SI units; also known as a metric base unit; SIbase units are the basic, fundamental physical measurements
Locard's exchange principle a key idea of criminalistics that states that whenever two objects come in contact with each other, there is a transfer of material between them
International System of Units (SI) the international system, formed from the metric system of units, which is the standard of units in scientific and technical pursuits; in French, Systeme International d'Unites
microscopic crime scene refers to the immediate, localized area of the place where a crime took place
laser scanning technology a photography technique that allows for 3-D reconstruction of crime scenes
forensics a shortened version of the term forensic science; the application of scientific processes to determine the facts of a crime
first responder the police officers who initially appear at the crime scene
SI derived unit an SI unit that is the result of the combination of two or more SI base units; also known as a metric derived unit
accuracy Accuracy means how close a measurement is to the size of the object being measured.
adipocere a soapy, waxy product of fat decomposition in dead bodies
chain of custody the progression of signature accounting that follows evidence from crime scene to storage and states who has had custody of the evidence and when
comparison microscope a modified compound or dissecting microscope that allows the observer to see a side-by-side comparison of two magnified images
coroner a person who examines a corpse to determine cause of death
crime scene investigator a forensic scientist who specializes in searching for evidence, collecting it, and preserving it
crime scene photographer the person responsible for documenting a crime scene (or accident scene) with various forms of photographs
crime scene reconstruction a hypothesis describing the sequence of events before, during, and after the crime was committed
criminalistics the application of scientific principles to the identification, analysis, and evaluation of physical evidence. Criminalistics more precisely describes what happens in a crime laboratory than forensic science
detective a police officer who investigates crimes, surveys the crime scene, interviews witnesses, arrests and interrogates suspects, writes reports, and testifies in court
duty to preserve a sworn obligation to the courts to preserve and protect the evidence for a long time
evidence a thing, or information, used to form a conclusion or make a judgment
forensic photographer a profession involving taking crime scene, criminal identification, disaster, and engineering- or product-failure photographs and giving advice on legal matters involving photography
forensic photography the application of photography to legal issues
forensic science the profession that uses science-based activities and procedures to resolve questions and handle evidence involving criminal (and often civil) incidents
fraud an intentional lie or deception done for personal gain and to the harm of others; a category of crime
front directional lighting a lighting technique used by crime scene photographers to visualize untreated fingerprints on glass surfaces; also called axis lighting
inquest a judicial inquiry into the cause of death
low-angle lighting a photographic lighting technique in which an object is illuminated from the side to create shadows that show details
macroscopic crime scene refers to the entire environment of a crime scene, not limited to the precise location of the crime
medical examiner a doctor certified to determine the cause of death and provide other medical evidence in crimes
oblique lighting a photographic lighting technique in which an object is illuminated from the side to create shadows that show details; also called low-angle lighting
paramedic people who provide emergency medical treatment to stabilize a patient for transport to a hospital
precision an indication of how exact a calculation or measurement is
primary crime scene the site where a crime was first committed
secondary crime scene location related to a crime, but not where the initial crime took place
significant figures the number of digits that are meaningful in a measurement or quantity, based on the precision of the instruments used for measurement