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Infection Control

Fundamentals of Nursing

What is an invasion of a susceptible host by pathogens, resulting in disease? Infection
What is the presence and growth of microorganisms within a host but without tissue invasion or damage? Colonization
What type of disease can be transmitted directly from one person to another? Communicable disease
What are the links in the chain of infection? Pathogen, reservoir, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host
True or False: The presence of a pathogen guarantees an infection will occur? False
How can the transmission of transient microorganisms be prevented? Hand hygiene
What type of bacteria require oxygen to survive? Aerobic bacteria
What type of bacteria do not require oxygen to survive? Anaerobic bacteria
What form of bacteria are resistant to drying and can live on inanimate objects for a long time? Spore
What is the ideal temperature for most human pathogens? 20-43 degrees Celsius (68-109 degrees Fahrenheit)
What is the preferred pH for microbes? 5.0-7.0
What is the major mode of transmission for pathogens in the health care setting? Unwashed hands of health care workers
What does susceptibility depend on? An individual's degree of resistance to pathogens
What are S/S for a localized infection? Pain, tenderness, warmth, and redness
What is supportive therapy for a localized infection? Providing adequate nutrition and rest
True or False: Normal flora don't usually cause disease True
What develops when a broad-spectrum antibiotic eliminates a wide range of normal flora? A superinfection
What is the purpose of inflammation? To neutralize infection or necrotic tissue
What are S/S of inflammation? Swelling, redness, heat, pain, and loss of function
What are S/S of systemic inflammation? Fever, increased WBCs, malaise, anorexia, N/V, lymph node enlargement, and/or organ failure
Describe serous exudate. Clear
What does sanguineous exudate contain? Erythrocytes
What does purulent exudate contain? Leukocytes
How is exudate usually cleared? Through the lymphatic drainage system
What are the stages of an infection? Incubation period, prodormal stage, illness stage, and convalescence
What are exogenous infections? Infections that come from microogranisms found outside the individual (e.g., Salmonella)
What are endogenous infections? Infections that occur when part of the patient's flora becomes altered and overgrowth results (e.g., streptococci)
What is immune senescene? An age-related functional deterioration in immune funciton
How does stress affect the immune system? By increasing cortisone levels, which decreases resistance to infection
What are medications that can increase susceptibility to infection? Steroids
Where are localized infections more common? Areas of skin or mucous membrane breakdown
When can systemic infections develop? After treatment for a localized infection has failed
What should you monitor if you suspect a systemic infection is developing? Changes in level of consciousness
True or False: You should start antibiotics before drawing labs if you suspect an infection. False
In planning treatment, which takes priority: Administering therapies to promote wound healing or educating the patient to assume self-care? Adminstering therapies to promote wound healing
What measures do systemic infections require in acute care? Measures to prevent complications from fever
What measures do localized infections require in acute care? Measures to assist removal of debris to promote healing
When does an object become contaminated? When it comes into contact with a potentially infectious material
What is clean technique? Medical asepsis
What process eliminates many or all microorganisms with the exception of bacterial spores? Disinfection
What process eliminates all forms of microbial life? Sterilization
How should a women clean her perineal area? From the urinary meatus toward the rectum
If you were looking to clear an object of bacterial spores, which cleaning process should you use? Sterilization
True or False: Handwashing kills microorganisms. False
What isolation procedure should be used on all patients? Standard Precautions
Which isolation procedure requires that you wear a surgical mask when you're within 3 feet of the patient? Droplet precautions
Which isolation procedure requires that a room be equipped with a negative air flow and all health care personnel wear an N95 respirator? Airborne precautions
Created by: shrewsbury_sd