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Ch.6 Muscle System

Muscle Cells Muscle Fibers
Contractility The ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force.
Excitability The ability to be stretched.
Elasticity The Ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched.
Epimysium The fibrous tissue envelope that surrounds skeletal muscle.
Fascia A connective tissue located outside the epimysium.
Perimysium Loose connective tissue.
Endomysium Connective Tissue Sheath.
Myofibrils A threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to another.
Actin Myofilaments Thin myofilaments that resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together.
Myosin Myofilaments Thick myofilaments that resemble bundles of minute golf clubs.
Sarcomeres Highly ordered units formed by actin and myosin, which are joined end to end to form myofibril.
Resting membrane Potential The charge difference across the membrane.
Action Potential The brief reversal back of charge.
Motor Neurons Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers.
Neuromuscular Junction A chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
Synapse A structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron.
Motor Unit A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscles fibers it innervates.
Presynaptic Terminal The enlarged nerve terminal.
Synaptic Cleft The space between neurons at a nerve synapse across which a nerve impulse is transmitted by a neurotransmitter.
Postsynaptic Terminal The receiving part of the connection between two neurons.
Synaptic Vesicles Store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Acetylcholine A neurotransmitter.
Acetylcholinesterase The enzymes that break down acetylcholine.
Sliding Filament Mechanism The sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction.
Muscle Twitch A contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers.
Threshold Membrane value.
All-Or-None Response The principle that the strength by which a nerve or muscle fiber responds to a stimulus is independent of the strength of the stimulus.
Lag Phase The period when the bacteria are adjusting to the environment.
Contraction Phase The muscle generates tension.
Relaxation Phase The muscle rests.
Tetany A condition marked by intermittent muscular spasms, caused by malfunction of the parathyroid glands and a consequent deficiency of calcium.
Recruitment The activation of additional motor units to accomplish an increase in contractile strength in a muscle.
Creatine Phosphate Phosphorylated creatine molecule that serves as a rapidly mobilizable reserve of high-energy phosphates in skeletal muscle and the brain to recycle adenosine tri phosphate; which is the energy currency of the cell.
Anaerobic Respiration The process of producing cellular energy without oxygen.
Aerobic Respiration The process of producing cellular energy involving oxygen.
Oxygen Debt The amount of oxygen needed to oxidise lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water.
Muscle fatigue When ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells.
Isometric The length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction phase.
Isotonic The amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes.
Muscle Tone Constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time.
Fast-Twitch Fibers Contract quickly and fatigue quickly.
Slow-Twitch Fibers Contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue.
Origin Head. The most stationary end of the muscle
Insertion The end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement.
Belly The portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion.
Synergists Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements.
Antagonists Muscles that work in opposition to one another.
Prime Mover Among a group of synergists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement, it is the prime mover.
Cytoplasm The material within a cell, excluding the nucleus.
Z Line A dark thin protein band to which actin filaments are attached in a striated muscle fiber, marking the boundaries between adjacent sarcomeres.
A Band One of the cross striations in striated muscle that contain myosin filaments and appear dark under the light microscope and light in polarized light.
M Line In the center of the sarcomere.
Axons The long threadlike part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells.
Action Potential An action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise
Receptor A protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Stimulus A thing or event that evokes a specific functional reaction.
H Band Contains only thick myosin filaments.
I Band A light band on each side of the Z line.
Periods of Inactivity When muscles aren't active.
General Principles What happens in the muscles.
Attachment Something attached.
Nomenclature The naming of things.
Cytoplasm What is inside the cell.
Structure What makes up things.
Membrane Potential It's potential at rest.
Nerve Supply The amount of nerves.
Synaptic Vehicles Store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Occipitofrontalis Raises the eyebrows.
Orbicularis Oculi Closes the eyelids and causes "crow's feet" wrinkles in the skin at the lateral corners of the eye.
Muscle Contraction The muscles reactions.
Obicularis Oris Puckers the lips.
Buccinator Flattens the cheek's/ Trumpeter's muscle.
Zygomaticus Smiling muscle.
Levator Labii Superioris Sneering.
Depressor Anguli Oris Frowning.
Created by: rockstar10mp
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