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Ch.6 Muscular System

epi upon
Fasica connective tissue outside epiphysium
muscle cells muscle fibers
Contractility allows muscle to shorten with force
Excitability allows muscle to respond to stimulus
Extensibility ability to be stretched
Elasticity allows muscle to return to original resting length after being stretched
actin myofilaments thin myofilaments
myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments
sarcomeres basic structural and functional unity of muscle
resting membrane potential charge difference across the membrane
action potential brief reversal back of the charge
motor neurons carry action potential to muscle fibers
neuromuscular junction synapse
presynaptic terminal enlarged nerve terminal
synaptic cleft space between presynaptic terminal and muscle cell
postsynaptic terminal muscle fiber
synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter
acetylcholine contracts
sliding filament mechanism sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction
all-or-none response phenomenon
muscle twitch contraction of a muscle in response to stimulus
threshold muscle fiber will contract maximally
recruitment increase number of motor units being activated
tetany where muscle remains contacted without relaxing
lag phase time between application of stimulus to a motor neuron and beginning of contraction
resting membrane potential charge difference across the membrane
acetylcholinestrase relax
creatine phosphate high energy molecule muscle cells store
motor unit single motor neuron and all skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
oxygen debt amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose
muscle fatigue when ATP is used curing muscle contraction faster than I t can be produced
isometric equal distance
isotonic equal tension
muscle tone refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body
fast-twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
slow- twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
orgin most stationary end of the muscle
insertion end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly stomach
synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
antagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another
sacromere from Z line to Z line
actin I bands
myosine make up H zones and A bands
isometric : isotonic 2 types of contractions
occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
orbiculars oculi closes the eyelid and causes crow feet
what is a sarcomere space from Z ling to Z line
orbicularoris oris puckers the lips
buccinator flattens the cheeks
orbicularis oris and buccinator kissing muscles
zygoaticus smiling muscle
levator labii superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
4 pairs of mastication muscles 2 pair of pterygoids temporals masseter
intrinsic tongue muscle change the shape of tongue
extrinsic tongue muscle move the tongue
sternocleoidomastoid lateral neck muscle and prime mover
platysma sheetlike muscle that covers anterolateral neck
erector spinae group of muscles on each side of the back
external intercostal elevate the ribs during inspiration
internal intercostals contract during forced expirations
diaphragm accomplishes quiet breathing dome shaped aids in breathing
rectus abdominis lines the linea alba on each side
linea alba consists of white connective tissue rather than muscle
trapezius rotates scapula
serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
attaches arm to thorax pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscle
pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
latissimus dorsi muscle medially rotates, adducts, and extends the arm
deltoid attatches the humerus to scapula and clavicle and is major abductor of upper limb
triceps brachii extends the forearm
biceps brachii flexes the forearm
brachialis flexes forearm
brachioraldialis flexes and supinates the forearm
flexor carpi flexes the wrist
extensor carpi extends the wrist
flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
extensor digitorum extends the fingers
gluteus maximus buttocks
quadriceps femoris extends the leg: anterior thigh muscles
hamstring posterior thigh muscles: flexes the leg and extends the thigh
Created by: laciejade