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Chapter 6 Muscles

Muscle Cells Muscle fibers
3 types of muscle Skeletal, cardiac, smooth
contractility shorten with force
excitability respond to stimulus
extensibility ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil to original length
superficial layer of connective tissue fascia
layer of connective tissues attached to the muscle epimysium
visible bundles that make up muscles fascicle
surrounds the fascicle perimysium
single muscle cells in the fascicle fibers
fibers are surrounded by the endomysium
the cytoplasm of muscle fibers is made up of myofibrils
myofibrils a thread like structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
2 types of myofibrils actin and myosin microfilaments
Myofilaments form highly ordered units called sarcomeres
sarcomeres extend from one attachment to the other. These are called z lines
on each side of the z band is a light area called i bands
what band stretches the lengths of the sarcomere a band
light area in the middle of the sarcomere; only consists of myosin h zone
dark staining band in the center of the sarcomere m line
reversal of the muscles charge action potential
motor neuron nerve cells that carry action potentials
enlarged nerve terminal presynaptic terminal
space between the presynaptic terminal and muscle cell is synaptic cleft
the muscle fiber postsynaptic terminal
causes the muscle to contract acetylcholine
causes the muscle to relax acetylcholinesterate
muscle twitch contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus
The time between the stimulus and the contraction Lag phase
The time of contraction Contraction phase
The time during relaxation Relaxation phase
When the muscle remains contracted without relaxation Tetany
Energy for muscle ATP
Where is ATP produced? Mitochondria
ATP cannot stockpile. What does it synthesize when it is not used? Creatine phosphate
Aerobic With oxygen
Anaerobic Without oxygen
Results when ATP is used faster than it can be produced Muscle fatigue
The length of the muscle does not change, but tension does Isometric
The amount of tension does not change, but the length of the muscle does Isotonic
Constant tension produced for a long period of time Muscle tone
Contracts and fatigues quickly Fast twitch fibers
Contracts and fatigues slowly Slow twitch fibers
Points of attachment on a muscle Origin and insertion
Muscle that work together to perform functions Synergists
Muscles that work in opposition to each other Antagonists
Prime mover Muscle that plays a major role
Ofcipitofrontalis Raises the eyebrows
Orbicularis oculi Closes the eyes
Orbicularis oris Puckers the lips
Buccinator Flattens the cheeks
Zygomaticus Smiling muscle
Levator labii superioris Sneering
Depressor anguli oris Frowning
Mastication Chewing
4 pairs of mastication muscles 2 pairs of pterygoids, temporalis, masseter
Intrinsic tongue muscles Changes the shape of the tongue
Extrinsic tongue muscles Moves the tongue
Neck muscle Sternocleidomastoid
Muscle on the back Erector spinae
External intercostals Elevates the ribs during inspiration
Internal intercostals Contracts during forced expiration
Diaphragm Accomplishes quiet breathing
Trapezius Rotates the scapula
Serratus anterior Pulls scapula anteriorly
Pectoralis major Flexes and adducts the arm
Triceps brachii Extends the forearm
Biceps brachii Flexes the forearm
Gluteus Maximus Buttocks
Gluteus medius Hip muscle and common injection site
Quadriceps femoris Extends the leg
Sartorius Flexes the thigh
Hamstring Posterior thigh muscles
Gastrocnemius and soleus Forms the calf
Created by: Tdudd