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Cells

Cell organelles, type of cells, plant and animal cells

TermDefinition
Cell Membrane Surrounds the cell, semi-permeable, and composed of proteins & lipids
Plasma Membrane Cell Membrane
Receptor Proteins Attach to hormones and neurotransmitters for cell communications
Transport Proteins Move substances across the membranes
Cytoplasm Watery substances that holds the organelles in place
Cyclosis Movement of cytoplasm around the cell
Nucleolus Produces ribosomes
Nuclear pores Holes in the nuclear envelope for RNA and proteins to pass through
Nuclear Envelope The membrane that surrounds the nucleus
Ribosomes Where protein synthesis occurs
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Channels in the cytoplasm that transport materials
Smooth ER Contains no ribosomes
Rough ER Contains ribosomes on the outside of it
Mitochondria The site of cellular respiration; produces ATP
Golgi Apparatus / Body Packages substances in vesicles that pinch off and works closely with the rough ER to transport proteins out of the cell
Cell Theory 1. All living things are made up of cells 2. All cells carry out their own functions 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells
Exceptions to the Cell Theory Viruses, Mitochondria & Chloroplasts, the first cell
Eukaryotes These cells have a nucleus and contain specialized organelles
Prokaryotes These cells have no nucleus, the DNA is clumped in the cytoplasm and do not usually have organelles
Unicellular Organism Single celled organism
Multi cellular Organism Made up of many different cells functioning together
Cell The smallest structure and function unit of an organism
Tissue Consists of specialized cells and their product
Organ Made up of different tissues, it is usually self-contained and has a vital function for the organism
Organ System A group of organs that work together to form one or more functions.
Organism An individual comprised of many organ systems to allow the organism to survive.
Lysosomes Vesicles containing digestive enzymes that is involved in digestion of food, breaking down old cell organelles and breaking down bacteria
Vacuoles Sac used for storage. Plant = Few Large ones Animal = Many small ones
Food Vacuoles Stores food
Contractile vacuole Stores and pumps out extra water
Cell Wall Surrounds & supports cell, composed of cellulose
Chloroplasts Site of photosynthesis, contains chlorophyll (green color)
Chlorophyll Green color in plant cells
Centrioles Used in cell division
Concentration Gradient Difference in concentration between 2 regions
Move with the Gradient From High to Low concentration
Move against the Gradient From Low to High concentration
Passive Transport No energy needed, moves from high concentration to low concentration
Diffusion Movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration
Osmosis Movement of water from a high concentration to a low concentration
Isotonic Equal concentration of water on outside and inside of cell; at equilibrium
Hypertonic More water diffusing out of the cell than in to the cell
Hypotonic More water diffusing into the cell than out of the cell
Active Transport Needs energy to move materials, moves from low concentration to high concentration
Pinocytosis The cell brings in small molecules or fluids into the cell
Phagocytosis The cell brings large molecules into the cell
Created by: CMacKay16