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rad bio

fall 2017

QuestionAnswer
Which of the following units are not SI units? (1) Roentgen (2) Coulombs per kilogram, gray, sievert (3) rad and rem 1 and 3 only
Who discovered x-rays on November 8, 1895? Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
Short-term somatic effects of radiation include which of the following? (1) Nausea and fatigue (2) Blood and intestinal disorders (3) Diffuse redness of the skin and shedding of its outer layer Short-term somatic effects of radiation include nausea and fatigue, blood and intestinal disorders, and diffuse redness of the skin and shedding of its outer layer
Thomas A. Edison invented the: fluoroscope
When x-rays were discovered, a charge was being passed through a pear-shaped, partial vacuum discharge tube. Light was seen emanating from a piece of paper coated with calcium tungstate that lay on a bench several feet away. false
Which of the following effects must be measured to determine the total amount of radiation exposure in a specific volume of dry air under standard conditions of pressure and temperature (760 mm Hg or 1 atmosphere at sea level and 22 °C)? Quantity of ionization
In the diagnostic radiology energy range (which includes mammography) from 23 to 150 kVp, which of the following tissues possesses the greatest ability to absorb radiant energy through the process of photoelectric absorption? Bone
One millirem equals ___________ rem. 1/1000
The quantity 45 rem equals _________ mSv. 450
What is the SI unit of radiation exposure? C/kg (coulombs per kilogram)
Who was the first American radiation worker to die from radiation-induced cancer in October 1904? clarence dally
If a patient receiving x-ray therapy treatment receives a total dosage of 6000 rads, the dosage may be recorded as _____ if the SI system is used. 6000 cGy if the SI system is used
The quantity 15 Sv equals __________ rem 1500 rem
As the intensity of x-ray exposure of the air volume increases, the number of electron-ion pairs produced: Also increases
Which of the following equals 400 rem? 4 mSv 40 mSv 400 mSv 4000 mSv 4000 mSv
Which of the following are types of ionizing radiation that produce virtually the same biologic effect for equal absorbed doses in body tissue? X-rays, beta particles, and gamma rays Alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays X-rays, neutrons, and X-rays, beta particles, and gamma rays
For x-ray and gamma ray photons with energies up to 3 million electron volts (MeV), which of the following quantities may be defined as the measure of the total electrical charge of one sign, either all pluses or all minuses, per unit mass that these two Exposure
Alpha particles have a radiation weighting factor (WR) that is numerically equal to 20
Beta particles are actually: high-speed electrons
The effective atomic number (Zeff) of soft tissue is 7.4
Which of the following radiation quantities is used to describe population or group exposure to low doses of different sources of radiation? D EqD Exposure (X) ColEfD Collective effective dose (ColEfD)
Which of the following radiation quantities can be used to compare the average amount of radiation received by the entire body from a specific radiologic examination with the amount received from natural background radiation? D EqD Exposure Co Equivalent dose (EqD)
If a patient undergoing x-ray therapy receives a total dose of 3000 rad, the dose may be recorded as _____________ if the SI system is used. 3000 cGy if the SI system is used
Which of the following types of radiation has a WR of 20? Alpha particles Gamma radiation Neutrons, energy X-radiation Alpha particles
X-rays, beta particles (high-speed electrons), and gamma rays have been given a numeric adjustment value of 1 because they produce Virtually the same biologic effect in body tissue for equal absorbed doses
Sv and R are the units used in the calculation of the radiation quantities EqD and EfD. false
As the intensity of x-ray exposure of an air volume increases, the number of electron-ion pairs produced decreases. false
The lower the atomic number of a material, the more x-ray energy it absorbs. True false
Biologic damage sustained by living organisms (such as human beings) as a consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation somatic effect
What provides the basis for determining whether an imaging procedure or practice is justified? efficacy
Typically, people are more willing to accept a risk if they perceive that the potential benefit to be obtained is: greater than the risk involved.
What amount of rem values equals 35 mSv? 3.5 rem
The amount of energy transferred to electrons by ionizing radiation is the basis of the concept of: radiation dose
What is the SI unit of electrical current? ampere
Both occupational and nonoccupational dose limits may be stated in: 1. coulombs per kilogram. 2. grays. 3. Sieverts. 3 only
The term as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) is synonymous with the term: optimization for radiation protection (ORP).
The TRACE program creates: greater awareness of radiation dose.
What tissues possesses the greatest ability to absorb radiant energy through the process of photoelectric absorption? bone
Radiation phobia can be greatly reduced by explaining the diagnostic radiation dose to the patient by using the: BERT method
What rem value equals 4000 mSv? 400 rem
If 400 people receive an average effective dose of 0.25 Sv, what is the collective effective dose? 100 person sieverts
What is a special form of radiation that is capable of creating electrically charged particles by removing orbital electrons from the atom of the material with which it interacts? ionizing
Among physicians, cancer deaths attributed to x-ray exposure were reported as early as: 1910
What is the latent period for most radiation-induced cancers? 15 years
As the intensity of x-ray exposure of the air volume increases, the number of electron–ion pairs produced: also increases
Alpha particles have a radiation weighting factor (WR) that is numerically equal to: 20
Which of the following is essentially the sum total of air kerma over the exposed area of the patient’s body surface? Dose area product
What was the total average annual effective dose from natural background and human-made radiations combined as of 2006? 6.3 mSv
One thousand five hundred rem equals _________ Sieverts. 15
The advantages of the BERT method are: 1. it does not imply radiation risk; it is simply a means for comparison. 2. it emphasizes that radiation is an innate part of our environment. 3. the answer given in terms of BERT is easy for the patient to compr 1,2,and 3
The mass of an alpha particle is approximately: four times the mass of a hydrogen atom.
In the electromagnetic spectrum, higher frequencies are associated with: shorter wavelengths and higher energies.
Diagnostic efficacy includes: 1. imaging procedure or practice justified by the referring physician. 2. minimal radiation exposure used. 3. optimal image(s) produced. 4. presence or absence of disease revealed. 1,2,3, and 4
For x-ray and gamma ray photons with energies up to 3 million electron volts (MeV), what quantity may be defined as the measure of the total electrical charge of one sign exposure
Which of the following terms refers to the radiation that occurs when an electron drops down from an outer orbit to fill a vacancy in an inner orbit of the parent atom? Characteristic radiation
During the process of coherent scattering, the incident x-ray photon interacts with: an atom transferring its energy by causing some or all of the electrons of the atom to vibrate momentarily and radiate energy in the form of electromagnetic waves.
In photoelectric absorption to dislodge an inner-shell electron from its atomic orbit, the incoming x-ray photon must be able to transfer a quantity of energy: as large as or larger than the amount of energy that binds the electron in its orbit.
The radiosensitivity of ova: varies considerably throughout the lifetime of the germ cell.
What is not another term for coherent scattering? Characteristic
Direct action may occur after exposure to any type of radiation, but it is much more likely to happen after exposure to: high-LET radiation such as alpha particles.
How many different amino acids are involved in protein synthesis? 22
While passing through a human cell, an x-ray photon interacts with and inactivates the cell’s master molecule. What is the consequence for the cell? death
Particles associated with electromagnetic radiation that have no mass or electric charge are: x-ray photons.
In general, which of the following can human cells do? 1. Move, grow, react, and protect themselves 2. Repair damage and regulate life processes 3. Reproduce 1,2,and 3
Which of the following groups of cells is least radiosensitive? Adult nerve cells Nerve cells in an embryo or fetus Lymphocytes Immature spermatogonia Adult nerve cells
What is the effective atomic number of compact bone? 13.8
Which curves illustrates the radiation sensitivity of a particular type of cell? Survival curve
Coherent scattering is most likely to occur ____________ even though some of this scattering occurs throughout the diagnostic range and may result in small amounts of radiographic fog. below 10 keV
Inorganic materials are compounds that: do not contain carbon
Which of the following results in all-directional scatter? Compton interaction
As LET increases, the ability of ionizing radiation to cause biologic effects: also generally increases until it reaches a maximal value
A biologic reaction is produced by 4 Gyt of a test radiation. It takes 16 Gyt of 250-kVp x-rays to produce the same biologic reaction. What is the relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) of the test radiation? 4
During mitosis, which phase of the cellular life cycle is the actual DNA synthesis period? s
Which of the following tissues contain cells that do not divide? 1. Epithelial tissue 2. Muscle tissue 3. Nervous tissue in an adult 2 and 3 only
A periodic blood count is not recommended as a method for monitoring occupational radiation exposure because: 1. biologic damage from ionizing radiation cannot be determined from a blood test. 2. biologic damage has already been sustained when an irregu 2 and 3 only
Compton scattering is synonymous with: incoherent scattering
X-rays are carriers of: human-made, electromagnetic energy
In the human body mineral salts are necessary for: 1. proper cell function. 2. creation of energy. 3. conduction of impulses along nerves. 1, 2, and 3
Which of the following groups of cells is most radiosensitive? Lymphocytes Adult nerve cells Erythrocytes Muscle cells Lymphocytes
Which of the following gonadal radiation doses may cause permanent sterility in a male human? 0.01 Gyt 1.0 Gyt 2.0 Gyt 6.0 Gyt 6.0 Gyt
The term apoptosis is synonymous with: programmed cell death
Which two interactions between x-radiation and matter may result in the production of small-angle scatter? Coherent scattering and Compton scattering
Neutrophils play an important role in: fighting infection.
If exposure to outside influence such as ionizing radiation damages the components of the cell involved in molecular synthesis beyond repair, then cells: 1. behave abnormally. 2. die. 3. take on a glowing greenish color when viewed under an electronic 1 and 2 only
The steps, or rungs, of the DNA ladder-like structure consist of complementary chemicals that are: pairs of nitrogenous bases
If bone marrow cells have not been destroyed by exposure to ionizing radiation, they can: repopulate after a period of recovery
_________ of the effects of x-radiation and gamma in macromolecules of living systems (in vivo) occur as a result of indirect action. Most
The probability of occurrence of photoelectric absorption _________ as the energy of the incident photon decreases and the atomic number of the irradiated atoms _________. increases markedly, increases
Which of the following means the loss or change of a nitrogenous base in the DNA chain? Mutation Aneuploidy Bleb Free radical Mutation
What is a scavenger type of white blood cell that fights bacteria? Granulocytes
Differences in density level between radiographic images of adjacent structures as seen in a completed radiograph define radiographic contrast.
The normal white blood cell count for an adult ranges from: 5000 to 10,000/mm3 of blood.
Which of the following is/are considered low-LET radiation(s)? 1. X-rays 2. Alpha particles 3. Gamma rays 1 and 3 only
In humans with the gastrointestinal form of ARS, the part of the body most severely affected is the: Small intestine
For persons with hematopoietic syndrome, survival time shortens as the radiation dose: increases
___________ syndrome is not a form of acute radiation syndrome Carcinogenic
Some local tissues suffer immediate consequences from high radiation doses. Examples of such tissues include: 1. Bone marrow 2. Male and female reproductive organs 3. Skin 1,2, and 3
Atrophy refers to: Shrinkage of organs and tissues after a high radiation dose is received
As a result of numerous reported patient injuries that have been associated with the use of _______________, better management of the use of such procedures is essential. high-level fluoroscopy
In the female, the oogonia, the ovarian stem cells: Multiply to millions of cells only during fetal development
The correct order of development for the female germ cell from the stem cell phase to the mature cell is: Primordial follicle, mature follicle, corpus luteum, ovum
Which of the following are classified as early (acute) deterministic somatic effects of ionizing radiation? Nausea, epilation, intestinal disorders
The prodromal stage of acute radiation syndrome is also referred to as the: Initial stage
Research has shown that repeated radiation injuries have a _________ effect. cumulative
The hematopoietic form of acute radiation syndrome is also called the _________ syndrome. bone marrow
Genetic mutations have been produced in experimental female animals when their ovaries were irradiated with doses as low as _____ Gy (_____ rad). 0.25; 25
A term that is synonymous with epilation is: Alopecia
A single absorbed dose of 2 Gy (200 rad) can cause a radiation-induced skin erythema within _____ hour(s) after irradiation. 24 to 48
A cytogenetic analysis of chromosomes may be accomplished through the use of a chromosome map. This may be called a karotype
The correct order of development of the male germ cell from the stem cell phase to the mature cell is: Spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, sperm
Attempts have been made to measure chromosome aberrations after diagnostic x-ray imaging procedures: But successful results have not been achieved in these studies
Which of the following factors govern organ and tissue response to radiation exposure? 1. Growth rate 2. Radiosensitivity 3. Reproductive characteristics 1, 2, and 3
Moist and dry desquamation can be caused by: High radiation doses
What is the reason why the ovaries should be shielded whenever possible during all imaging procedures? Gonadal irradiation of the ovaries can result in genetic mutations that can be passed on to future generations
A decrease in the number of neutrophils can be caused by a radiation dose of _____ Gy (_____ rad). 0.5; 50
During the major response stages of acute radiation syndrome after the initial stage, the period when symptoms that affect the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, and cerebrovascular systems become visible is called: Manifest illness
Which of the following measures of lethality may be a more relevant indicator of outcome for humans? LD 50/60
When a prediction is made that the number of excess cancers in a given population will increase as the natural incidence of cancer increases in that population with age, the risk is described by which of the following terms? relative
Radiation dose-response curves can be used to predict the risk of _________ in human populations that have been exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation malignancy
The term “linear nonthreshold curve” implies that the biologic response to ionizing radiation is _____ the dose directly proportional to
Epidemiologic studies are of significant value to scientists who use the information from these studies to formulate dose-response estimates to predict the risk of: Cancer in human populations exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation
Which of the following implies that the biologic response to ionizing radiation is directly proportional to the dose? Linear nonthreshold dose-response curve
Radiation-induced cataracts in humans follow a __________ dose-response relationship nonlinear, threshold
Of the following late somatic effects caused by exposure to ionizing radiation, which effect is considered to be most important? Cancer
Laboratory experiments with mice prove that cataracts may be induced with doses of ionizing radiation as low as _____ Gy (_____ rads). 0.10; 10
Cataracts, leukemia, and genetic mutations are examples of: Measurable radiation-induced biologic damage
Which of the following are late somatic effects? Carcinogenesis Cataractogenesis Embryologic effects All of the above All of the above
Mutations in genes and DNA that occur at random as natural phenomena are called _____ mutations. spontaneous
Existing data on radiation-induced genetic effects in humans: Are still inconclusive
What is the mean value of the radiation doubling equivalent dose for humans, as determined from the offspring of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki? 1.56 Sv (156 rem)
Genetic effects from exposure to ionizing radiation occur as a result of radiation-induced damage to the DNA molecule in which of the following? 1. Sperm of an adult male 2. Ova of an adult female 3. Somatic cells of male and female adults 1 and 2 only
What do agents such as chemicals, elevated temperatures, ionizing radiation, and viruses have in common? They are all mutagens that may increase the frequency of occurrence of mutations
A radiation dose of 0.05 Gy to 0.15 Gy (5 to 15 rads) delivered to a human embryo during the preimplantation stage of development results in which of the following? Embryonic death
Radiation-induced abnormalities are caused by unrepaired damage to: DNA within ova or sperm
Normally mutations in genetic material occur spontaneously, without a known cause. A genetic disorder is present in approximately ____% of all live births in the United States 10
Today, as a result of programs stressing radiation safety education and protective devices, radiation workers employed in medical imaging: Need not experience any adverse health effects as a consequence of their work
Genetic mutations at the molecular level are called _____ mutations. point
What measures the effectiveness of ionizing radiation in causing mutations? Doubling dose
Most radiation-induced genetic mutations are: Recessive mutations
When exposure to ionizing radiation causes proliferation of the white blood cells, the radiation-induced disease that occurs is: Leukemia
For a recessive mutation to appear in an offspring: Both parents must have the same genetic defect
During the embryonic stage of development: All life forms seem to be most vulnerable to radiation exposure
Which of the following are mutagens? 1. Elevated temperatures 2. Ionizing radiation 3. Viruses 1,2 and 3
The only concrete evidence that ionizing radiation causes genetic effects comes from: Extensive experiments with fruit flies and mice
What led to the development of the doubling dose concept? Animal studies of radiation-induced genetic effects
Cancer and genetic effects are examples of __________________ effects stochastic
The linear nonthreshold curve implies that biologic response is Directly proportional to the dose
Early demise of experimental animals exposed to nonlethal ionizing radiation actually resulted from: Induction of cancer
Most diagnostic procedures result in an equivalent dose of: Less than 0.01 Sv (1 rem)
Some examples of measurable late damage are: 1. Cataracts 2. Leukemia 3. Nausea and vomiting 4. Genetic mutations 1,2 and 4
The radiation dose-response model is used to establish radiation protection standards because it accurately reflects the effects of: High-LET radiation at higher doses
Spontaneous mutations in human genetic material cause a wide variety of diseases including: 1. Down syndrome 2. Hemophilia 3. Sickle cell anemia 1,2 and 3
Which of the following agencies was previously known as the Atomic Energy Commission? NRC
What are functions and/or responsibilities of the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)? Functions as a monitoring agency in places of employment, Regulates occupational exposure to radiation-Part 1910 Title 29 of U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, & Responsible for regulations of the “right to know” of employees with regard to hazards in wor
Created by: jackie.winne