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what is osmoregulation based on? based largely on controlled movement of solutes between internal fluids and the external environment
what are osmoconfromers? they are isoomotic with their surroundings and do not regulate their osmolarity
what are osmoregulators? expend energy to control water uptake and loss in a hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic environment
what are transport epithelia? specialized cells that regulate solute movement
what do excretory systems produce? they produce urine by refining a filtrate derived from body fluids
what are the functions of excretory systems? - Filtration: pressure-filtering of body fluids - Reabsorption: reclaiming valuable solutes - Secretion: adding toxins and other solutes from the body fluids to the filtarte - Excretion: removing the filtrate from the system
what are nephrons the functional unit of? mammalian kidney
when does filtration occurs? occurs as blood pressure forces fluid from the blood in the glomerulus into the lumen of Bowman's capsule
what is the pathway of the filtrate? From bowman's capsule, the filtrate passes through three regions of the nephron: the proximal tubule, the loop of Henle, andthe distal tubule
when does filtrate becomes urine? becomes urine as it flows through the mammalian nephron and collecting duct
how does the mammalian kidney conserve water? conserves water by producing urine that is much more concentrated than body fluids
what do NaCl and urea contribute to? contribute to the osmolarity of the interstitial fluid, which causes reabsorption of water in the kidney and concentrates the urine
Created by: young kodak