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ch.12

cell cycle

QuestionAnswer
How many number of chromosomes do somatic cells have? two sets
How many number of chromosomes do gametes cells have? half as many chromosomes as somatic cells
what is the centromere? the narrow "waist" of the duplicated chromosome, where the two chromatids are most closely attached
What is mitosis? the division of the nucleus
what is cytokinesis? the divison of the cytoplasm
What are gametes produced by? meiosis
what are meiosis? yields nonidentical daughter cells that have only one set of chromosomes, half as many as the parent cell
what are the phases of the cell cycle? - Mitotic phase - Interphase
what is interphase? cell growth and copying of chromosomes in preparation for cell divison
what are the 3 subphases of interphase? - G1 phase - S phase - G2 phase
what are the 5 phases of mitosis? - prophase - prometaphase - metaphase - anaphase - telophase
what is the mitotic spindle? an apparatus of microtubules that controls chromosome movement during mitosis
how are spindle microtubules assembled? - they begin in the centrosome, the microtubule organizing center - the centrosomes replicates, forming two centrosomes that migrate to opposite ends of the cell - an aster extends from each centrosome
what happens in anaphase? - sister chromatids separate and move along the kinetohore microtubules toward opposite ends of the cell - the microtubules shorten by depolymerizing at their kinetochore ends
what happens in binary fission? the chromosome replicates and the two daughter chromosomes actively move apart
What is so important about the G1 checkpoint? this is where a cell receive a go-ahead signal and go into the S,G2,and M phase and divide
what happens if the cell does not receive the go ahead signal? it will exit the cycle, switching into a non dividing state called the G0 phase
what are two types of regulatory proteins involved in cell cycle control? cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases
what is an example of an internal signal? when kinetochores not attached to spindle microtubules send a molecular signal that delays anaphase
What are some external signals? growth factors, proteins released by certain cells that stimulate other cells to divide
Created by: young kodak