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ch.6

tour of the cell

QuestionAnswer
What do Eukaryotic cells internal membranes do? They compartmentalize their functions
What is the basic structural and functional unit of every organism ? Prokaryotic or eukaryotic
What are the characteristics of Prokaryotes? - Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus - DNA is an unbound region called the nucleoid - They lack membrane-bound organelles
What are the characteristics of Eukaryotes? - They have DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope - Have membrane-bound organelles - Larger than prokaryotic cells
Where are the eukaryotic cell's genetic instructions housed and carried out? Housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes
What are Ribosomes? Particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein
How do Ribosomes carry out protein synthesis? In two ways: - In the cytosol (free ribosome ) - On the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or the nuclear envelope (ribosomes)
What does the endomembrane system regulate and perform? regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell
What does the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) acoount for? accounts for more than half of the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells
What are the two types of ER? - smooth ER, which lacks ribosomes - rough ER, with ribosomes studding its surface
Functions of Smooth ER? - creates lipids - breaks down carbohydrates - stores calcium - detoxfies poison
Functions of Rough ER? - has bound ribosomes - produces proteins and membranes, which are distributed by transport vesicles - membrane factory of the cell
What is the Golgi Apparatus? It is the shipping and receiving center
Functions of Golgi Apparatus? - Modifies products of ER - Manufacturers certain macromolecules - Sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles
What are Lysosomes? Digestive compartments
What are functions of Lysosomes? - hydrolyze proteins, fats, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids - use enzymes to recycle organelles and macromolecules
What are Vacuoles? Diverse Maintenance Compartments
What is Mitochondria? change energy from one form to another
What is the cytoskeleton? a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm
Functions of cytoskeleton? - helps support the cell and maintain its shape - interacts with motor proteins to produce motility
Created by: young kodak
 

 



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