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Ch. 13/14 quiz

a complete, fully developed, infectious viral particle Virion
protein subunits, a single type or several types Capsomeres
phage causes lysis and death of host cell Lytic cycle
prophage DNA incorporated in host DNA Lysogenic cycle
nucleic acid and capsid proteins assemble, usually a spontaneous process Maturation
Virus remains in asymptomatic host cell for long periods (cold sores, shingles) Latent viral infections
Disease process occurs over a long period; generally is fatal Persistent viral infections
cancer patients usually die of what kind of infection? Microbial infections
when animal viruses infect animal cells, the virus shape changes or stays the same? changes
Virus invades what and takes over what in order to multiply? host cells; host's metabolic machinery
what are the two types of bacteriophages? lytic and lysogenic
phages kill hosts right away lytic cycle
can the viruses in the lysogenic cycle spread diseases? yes
Spikes are what? glycoproteins
how do viruses cause cancers? viruses trigger the activation of oncogenes; oncogenic viruses become integrated into the host cell's DNA
What are characteristics of transformed cells? -increased growth -chromosomal abnormalities
which DNA viruses cause cancer? -Papillomaviruses -Hepatitis B virus -Epstein-barr virus
what is the characteristic of Burkitt lymphoma? swollen face/neck
Which RNA viruses cause cancer? retroviruses (ex: leukemia virus)
when DNA makes RNA transcription
when RNA makes DNA reverse-transcriptase
Are oncogenic viruses examples of latent infections or persistent infections?
Are cold sores latent or persistent infections? Latent infections
How does chickenpox virus cause shingles? some people can still have chickenpox virus in their nerve cells
the scientific study of disease Pathology
the study of the cause of a disease Etiology
the manner in which disease develops by pathogens Pathogenesis
invasion or colonization of the body by pathogens Infection
an abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally Disease
microbiota that permanently colonizes the host Normal microbiota
microbiota that may be present for days, weeks, or months Transient microbiota
relationship between normal microbiota and the host Symbiosis
one organism benefits, and the other is unaffected Commensalism
both organisms benefit mutualism
one organism benefits at the expense of the other (pathogen vs. host) Parasitism
some normal microbiota are what? opportunistic pathogens
What accounts for up to 10% of energy a human body absorbs? short chain fatty acids
competition between microbes microbial antagonism
Normal microbiota protect the host by doing what? -occupying niches that pathogens might occupy -produce acids -produce bacteriocins
live microbes applied to or ingested into the body, intended to exert a beneficial effect Probiotics
a subjective change in a body function that is felt by a patient as a result of disease Symptom
an objective change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease Sign
a specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease syndrome
a disease that is spread from one host to another Communicable disease
a disease that is easily spread from one host to another Contagious disease
a disease that is not transmitted from one host to another Noncommunicable disease
new cases of a disease in a population during a specified time period Incidence
total cases of a disease in a population at a given time Prevalence
disease that occurs occasionally in a population Sporadic disease
disease constantly present in a population Endemic disease
disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time Epidemic disease
worldwide epidemic Pandemic disease
disease in which symptoms develop rapidly acute disease
disease that develops slowly chronic disease
disease with a period of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactive latent disease
pathogens are limited to a small area of the body Local infection
an infection throughout the body systemic infection
when a local infection spreads to another site in the body focal infection
toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes, especially bacteria or their toxins sepsis
blood poisoning, growth of bacteria in the blood Septicemia
bacteria in the blood bacteremia
toxins in the blood toxemia
viruses in the blood viremia
acute infection that causes the initial illness primary infection
opportunistic infection after a primary (predisposing) infection secondary infection
no noticeable signs or symptoms (inapparent infection) but can spread subclinical disease
incidence of a specific disease in a given time period morbidity
deaths from a specific disease in a given time period mortality
AIDS, gonorrhea, hepatitis, streptococcal infections Human reservoirs
carriers may have ____ infections or _____ diseases inapparent; latent
primarily animal diseases but can cause human diseases zoonoses
nonliving reservoirs? soil and water
transmissions of disease? -contact -vehicles -vectors
transmission of disease requires close association between infected and susceptible host direct contact
transmission of disease spread by fomites indirect contact
transmission of disease via airborne droplets droplet contact
transmission by an inanimate reservoir (food, water, air) vehicle transmission
animals that carry pathogens from one host to another vectors
infections acquired in hospitals, nursing homes and other health care facilities nosocomial infections
what type of infections affect 5-15% of all hospital patients nosocomial infections
____ million people per year contract nosocomial infections and nearly _____ die as a result 2; 200,000
the study of where and when diseases occur and how they are transmitted Epidemiology
collects and analyzes epidemiological info in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
-arthropod carries pathogen on feet -food poisoning by houseflies mechanical transmission
-pathogens that reproduce in vector -malaria (Plasmodium spp.) by mosquito -plague (Yersinia pestis) by flea Biological transmission
What is the difference between pathology and pathogenesis? pathology is not limited to any specific disease, pathogenesis is the series of events of pathogens
Patients of HIV do or don't show symptoms right away? Don't
when do humans start to have microbiota? once you're born
Are pathogens normal or transient microbiota? transient
Are all transient microbiota pathogens (cause disease)? no
where are normal microbiota on the human body? Eyes, mouth, skin, nose, throat, urinary tract, large intestine (none in womb)
Of what value are normal microbiota? 1-2.5
what is the difference between commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism? -commensalism: one organism benefits, the other unaffected -mutualism: both organisms benefit -parasitism: one organism benefits at expense of another
Normal microbiota can be what kind of pathogen? opportunistic pathogens
what nutrients are produced by intestinal microorganisms? Vitamin B complexes, Vitamin K complexes, enzymes for carbohydrates, fatty acids for energy
10% of energy a human body absorbs is? short chain fatty acids
How do normal microbiota protect us from microbial infections? -preoccupy space so pathogens don't -produce acids -produce bacteriocins (which produce acids that kill pathogens)
How did Warren and Marshall prove that H. pylori causes gastritis and peptic ulcer disease? found microorganisms in patient's stomach (no one believed him), grew the microorganism and drank it, got the disease and proved it; accomplished kock's postulate
difference between symptoms and signs? signs can be measured by a physician, symptoms can only be felt by a patient
Is cholera communicable or noncommunicable? communicable
What is the difference between incidence and prevalence? incidence is NEW cases of a disease, prevalence is the TOTAL cases of a disease
are seasonal diseases incidence or prevalence? incidence
Are colds sporadic, endemic, epidemic, or pandemic? endemic
is aids sporadic, endemic, epidemic, or pandemic? epidemic
is the flu sporadic, endemic, epidemic, or pandemic? endemic
are rabies sporadic, endemic, epidemic, or pandemic? sporadic
what are examples of acute diseases? influenza, acute infection
what are examples of chronic diseases? tuberculosis, hepatitis B
What are examples of latent disease? shingles by varicella (or herpes) zoster virus
how do latent infections differ from persistent infections? latent do not show symptoms but persistent do
What are examples of local infections? boils, abscesses
What are examples of systemic infections? HIV, measles
Is a toxigenic disease local, systemic, or focal? systemic
Does bacteremia (bacteria in the blood) always cause sepsis? no; septicemia causes sepsis
What is an example of primary disease? HIV
What is an example of secondary disease? pneumonia
What is an example of subclinical disease? hepatitis A virus
what is the difference between morbidity and mortality? mortality= deaths morbidity= incidence
why do carriers and latent infection patients play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases? they have viruses but DON'T show any symptoms and signs
primarily animal diseases but can cause human diseases? zoonoses
What are major nonliving reservoirs of infectious diseases soil, water
What are 3 major modes of disease transmission? -contact -vehicles -vectors
What are the three contact modes in disease transmission? -direct -indirect -droplet
Vehicle transmission is mediated by what? -inanimate reservoir (food, water, air)
What are differences between droplet transmission and airborne vehicle transmission? airborne vehicle: tuberculosis Droplet: coughing, sneezing
What animals are the most important group of disease vectors? arthropods (fleas, ticks, mosquitoes)
What are characteristics of microorganisms in hospital environment? -resistant to antibiotics -biofilm formation
what are three factors causing nosocomial infections? -microorganisms in hospital environment -compromised host -chain of transmission
why are hospital patients vulnerable for infections? -too many things attached to their body -catheters (used to drain urine) can contain biofilms
top infections in nosocomial infections? -urinary tract infections -surgical site infections -lower respiratory infections
What are main causes of each nosocomial infection? -respiratory infections through ventilators
what microorganisms usually cause nosocomial infections? opportunistic pathogens
how can nosocomial infections be controlled? -aseptic techniques -not sharing disposables -handwashing -education
What is the main govt. agency to study epidemiology in the U.S? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Who reports the nationally notifiable infectious diseases to whom? physicians to CDC
Is 100% immunization required for control of infection in pop.? Why? no, most people being vaccinated can help stop the spread of a disease (90%)
immunity in most of a population? Herd immunity
eating what can give you good bacteria? eating yogurt
what kind of disease is rabies? sporadic disease
Created by: yulissalira