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Pharmacology

Chapter 23&24

QuestionAnswer
Hypoglycemia means... low Blood glucose level
Name 3 oral anti-diabetic agents Sulfonylureas Alpha-glucosidase Biguanides
These work by increasing insulin production and by improving peripheral insulin activity Sulfonylureas
These work by delaying digestion of complex carbs Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
Works by decreasing hepatic glucose output and enhancing insulin sensitivity in muscle Biguanides
What do you need to do before administering insulin? -Check patients BGL -Check expiration date of insulin -be sure "reg" insulin is clear/NPH is cloudy -check right dose with another licensed nurse -Perform 5 rights (TRAMP) and rotate sites of admin
Follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH) does what? Stimulates development of ovarian follicles in the female and sperm production in the testes of the male
This works in conjunction w/FSH to induce secretion of estrogen, ovulation, and development of the corpus luteum Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Luteotropic Hormone (LTH) does what? Stimulates the secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum and secretion of milk by the mammary gland, hence the term lactogenic hormone
Male hormone that stimulates the development of male characteristics is called Androgens
Female sex hormone responsible for the development of female secondary sexual characteristics. Estrogen
The therapeutic use of hormones is called Hormone Therapy
Hormone that is responsible for changes in the uterine endometrium in the second half of the menstrual cycle in preparation for implantation of the fertilized ovum, development of placenta and mammary glands, is called Progesterone
Medications used for Birth Control are called Contraceptives
Hormone that stimulates the uterus to contract, thus inducing labor Oxytocin/pitocin
Internal secretion hormone produced by a ductless gland that secretes directly into the bloodstream is called Endocrine
This is also called the "Master Gland" because it regulates function of other glands. It secretes ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, and LTH Pituitary Gland
Gland that secretes hormones called corticosteroids Adrenal Gland
What are some side effects of long-term steroid use? -Fluid and electrolyte imbalance -Osteoporosis -increased intraocular pressure -psychosis
Name two Pituitary drugs Coricotropin Consyntropin
What hormone does the thyroid gland produce? Thyroid or Thyroxine
Low thyroid, is caused by diminished or absent thyroid function is known as Hypothyroidism
Agents that are used in replacement therapy for Hypothyroidism, the most common thyroid problem. Thyroid agents
Name two thyroid agent drugs levothyroxine (Synthyroid, Levothroid) liothyronine (Cytomel)
A hypothyroid condition in children, replacement therapy Cretinism
A hypothyroid condition in adults is called Myxedema
Having an overdose of thyroid, or to much thyroid is called Hyperthyroidism
Agents used to relieve the symptoms of hyperthyroidism are called Anti-thyroid agents
A blood disorder where one part of the blood is not present in normal supply Blood dyscrasia
Name two Anti-thyroid agent drugs Methimazole (tapazole) Propylthiouracil (PTU)
These are administered to lower blood glucose levels. Anti-Diabetic agents
The "islets of Langerhans" produce what hormone? Insulin
What is the only type of insulin given IV? Regular
When mixing insulin what order do you draw in? 1st is Clear....2nd Cloudy
Fast acting insulin, and this method corrects or brings the glucose level back up to normal parameters "quickly" is what kind of insulin? Regular insulin
How fast the insulin starts to work after the injections is called Onset of action
When insulin works the hardest, that is called Peak
How long insulin continues to work is Duration
Elevated blood glucose, is called Hyperglycemia
Symptoms of hyperglycemia are -dehydration and excessive thirst -Polyuria/frequent urination -fruity breath -vision problems
Medications that can be given to help the body's immune system or as replacement therapy is Corticosteroid
The Adrenal Gland secretes what hormone? Corticosteroid
Corticosteroid are an immunosuppressant that suppress the body's response to? infection or trauma
Corticosteroid therapy is not Curative
Corticosteroids act to treat what? Allergic reactions and severe status of asthma
A form of leukopenia or shortage of white blood cells which involves critically low levels of granulocytes is Agranulocytosis
Name 5 Corticosteroid drug names -Cortisone -Dexamethasone -Hydrocortisone -Methylprednisone -Prednisone All end in "one"
Synthetic drugs that exert progesterone like activity are called progestins
The pituitary gland is located at the base of the Brain
Somatotropin is called Human growth hormone (HGH)
Corticosteroids are used with what other drugs to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs? Immunosuppresive drugs
Healthcare professionals must teach patients beginning on a corticosteroid that prolonged use will result in? Suppression of the pituitary gland, ending the body's normal secretion of corticosteroids
An adverse effect of corticosteroids in older women is the development of what? Osteoporosis with fractures
Patients suffering from hypothyroidism have slowed metabolism with symptoms ranging from fatigue, dry skin, weight gain, sensitivity to cold, irregular menses to mental retardation if untreated
Unopened insulin vials should not be subjected to? Freezing
The hormone that act on the immune system to suppress the body's response to infection or trauma and relieve inflammation are known as Corticosteroids
When patients are on corticosteroids for extended duration, serious side effect may occur, such as osteoporosis in fractures, especially in older women
Which medications increase the effects of corticosteroids? Estrogens and oral contraceptives
What toxic side effects would the healthcare provider observe in a patient who is taking a thyroid agent for the treatment of hypothyroidism? Hypertension, tachycardia and nervousness
Which antithyroid agents are used to relieve the symptoms of hyperthyroidism in preparation for surgical or radioactive iodine therapy? Tapazole and propylthiouracil
Prior to administering insulin the health care professional should always have someone else check what? The dosage ordered with the insulin drawn up in the syringe in order to prevent medication error.
Which insulin preparation should not be mixed with any of the other available types of insulin? Glargine (lantus)
Open vials of insulin may be stored at room temperature without the loss of potency for? 28days
Hyperglycemia may result from infections or emotional stress
Symptoms of hyperglycemia include Dehydration and excessive thirst
The health care professional should instruct the patient and family that hypoglycemia may result from Overdose of insulin, and insufficient food intake
Which insulin should be drawn into the syringe first if regular insulin is to be mixed with NPH? Draw up the regular first
Which factor could affect the blood glucose level sufficiently to decrease the amount of insulin a patient is required to take? Increased regular exercise
Adrenal gland secretes Corticosteroids
Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas secretes Insulin
The pituitary gland secretes -Gonadotropic hormones (FSH, LH, LTH) -Thyroid stimulating hormone -Somatotropin -Adrenocorticotropic hormone
(true/False) Corticosteroid therapy is used for acute flare-ups of severe skin conditions that do not respond to conservative therapy. True
(True/False) In situations of allergic reactions to insect bites, poison plants, chemicals or other medications with sever symptoms, corticosteroids are often ordered. True
(True/false) A side effect of corticosteroid therapy is gastric or esophageal irritation, ulceration or hemorrhage. True
(True/false) A patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus does not produce any insulin. False
(True/False) Insulin must be administered parenterally because it is destroyed in the GI tract. True
(True/false) Regular insulin is the only type of insulin that can be given intravenously. True
The emergency contraceptive Plan B, if taken within three days of sexual intercourse, prevents? Ovulation or blocks implantation of a fertilized egg.
The healthcare professional should inform diabetic patients who are taking androgens and insulin to monitor blood sugars carefully because androgens will decrease blood glucose and insulin requirements
Postmenopausal women taking estrogen should be informed that because of potential side effect, they should increase their dietary intake of Folate
Which hormone is secreted by the corpus luteum and adrenal glands and is responsible for changes in uterine endometrium in the second half of the menstrual cycle? Progesterone
A oral contraceptive that would be safe for a breastfeeding mom would be Progestin-only
What hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary lobe stimulates the uterus to contract for childbirth and then acts on the mammary gland to stimulate the release of milk. Oxytocin
What medication is used for severe preeclampsia or eclampsia to control or prevent seizures by depressing the CNS and blocking neuromuscular transmission? Magnesium Sulfate
Induces the secretion of estrogen, ovulation, and the development of corpus luteum is Luteinizing hormone
Stimulates the development of male characteristics Androgen
Stimulates the development of ovarian follicles in the female and sperm production in the testes of the male Follicle-stimulating hormone
Responsible for the development of female secondary sexual characteristics Estrogen
Responsible for changes in the uterine endometrium in the second half of the menstrual cycle Progesterone
Stimulates the secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum and the secretion of milk by the mammary gland Luteotropic hormone
Used for the induction of labor in at or near term pregnancies oxytocin
Used as adjunctive and palliative therapy for advanced and metastatic endometrial or breast cancer Megestrol acetate
Used for the prevention and treatment of postpartum and postabortion hemorrhage Methylergonovine
Used to prevent convulsions associated with preeclampsia Magnesium sulfate
Used for the prevention of pregnancy when taken within five days of unprotected intercourse Ulipristal acetate
Used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction Vardenafil
Used for the treatment of endometriosis and fibrocystic breast disease because of its antiestrogenic and weakly androgenic effects Danazol
Used to reduce sexual urges in males with pedophilia and sexual sadism Medrozyprogesterone
Used for the treatment of cachexia in patients with burns, trauma, AIDS, or COPD Oxandrolone
Created by: Ashleybit4