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Cell Transport

section 7.4 Cellular Transport

QuestionAnswer
Describe motion of particles in gases,liquids, and solids they are in random motion and collide with each other
What is diffusion caused by random motion of particles , net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area where there is a lower concentration ( from an area of many particles to an area of few particles)
the amount of a substance in an particular area is called... concentration
Does diffusion require additional energy input... why or why not? diffusion doesn't require additional energy input... the particles are already in motion
What is the result of diffusion diffusion or mixing continues until the concentrations of diffusion materials are the same in all areas... after this point the particles continue to move randomly , but no further change in concentration will occur
what is meant by dynamic equilibrium this is the end point of diffusion , there is continuous movement of particles but no overall change in concentrations
Describe the transport of water across the plasma membrane ( hint: it is easy or difficult to move water across the plasma membrane) water can diffuse across the plasma membrane freely
Describe other substances the cell needs that don't easily pass through the plasma membrane easily... ( 2 categories with examples) ions and small molecules ( chloride ions and sugars)
Describe how the ions and small molecules get through the plasma membranes Faciliatated diffusion lets them pass through a plasma membrane (this uses transport proteins)
Describe Facilitated diffusion This uses transport proteins to move ions and small molecules across the plasma membrane... they move from an area of hign concentration to low concentration
How is diffusion different from FACILITATED diffusion facilitated diffusion uses transport proteins to help move certain ions and small molecules across the plasma membrane
What are 3 examples of passive transport diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis
What is meant by passive transport transport where the particles move from high concentration to low concentration and NO ADDITIONAL ENERGY INPUT IS REQUIRED because the particles are in random motion
What is OSMOSIS a special type of diffusion... diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane... this is important in maintaining homeostasis
Review these terms about solutions... solute.... solvent solute: substance that is dissolved.. solvent: substance that does the dissolving
What is the solvent in a cell water
What is a definition of concentration when talking about solutes and solvents a measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a solvent...
A rule of thumb for water concentrations when there is a lot of solute dissolved in water ...the concentration of water is less.... ..when there is less solute dissolved the concentration of water is much greater..
How does water move during osmosis? it moves from high water concentration to low water concentration ...until dynamic equalibrium is reached ( ... remember if there is low solute there is high water)
What term describe a cell in a solution with the same concentration of water and solutes as its cytoplasm isotonic
what does iso mean equal
How does water move in a situation where the cell is in an isotonic solution the water moves through the plasma membrane, but water enters and leaves the cell at the same rate ( the cell is at equilibrium ).. no net movement of water
What happens to the shape of animal cells and plant cells in an isotonic solution they keep their normal shape
What term describes a cell in a solution with a lower concentration of solute hypotonic
what does hypo mean hypo mean under... such as a hypodermic needle goes under the skin
what is true about the amount of water outside the cell if their is less solute outside... there is move water outside the cell... the net movement of water is INTO the cell... move water moves into the cell than out... this generates pressure from the in flow of water
what is osmotic pressure pressure generated as water flows through the plasma membrane. if water moves into a cell the pressure increases
what happens to an animal cell in a hypotonic solution water moves into the cell and the plasma membrane swells. In some situations the plasma membrane may not withstand the pressure and the cell might burst
When is an animal cell more likely to burst during osmosis situations when the cell is in extremely hypotonic solutions
What is an example of an extremely hypotonic solution distilled water with not minerals (100% water)
What can protect a plant cell from bursting in a hypotonic solution the cell wall .. as the pressure inside the cell increases the central vacuole fills and pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall ( the plant cell becomes firmer)
What term describes a cell in a solution with a higher concentration of solute outside the cell hypertonic
What does hyper mean hyper means above.... a hyperactive child is one that is more active than other children..
If a cell is in a hypertonic solution. This means that the amount of water outside the cell is ? than inside less ...
How does the water move when a cell is in a hypertonic situation when a cell is in a hypertonic situation the net movement of water is out of the cell... more water exits than enters.
what happens to cells placed in a hypertonic situation they will shrivel or shrink... they have decreased pressure in their cells
What happens to a plant cell in a hypertonic situation the plant cells lose water from the central vacuole. The plasma membrane shrinks away from the cell wall and the plant wilts
What is active transport... describe 3 things that must be true in this transport substances move from lower concentration to higher concentration ( opposite passive transport)... This movement requires energy ( ATP)... this movement also uses carrier proteins ( a type of transport protein)
What two types of transport use transport proteins ( carrier proteins) facilitated diffusion and active transport
What type of passive transport uses transport proteins facilitated diffusion
What name is given to some of the carrier proteins used in active transport... give one example pumps.... Na+/K+ATPase pump
Name two types of active transport that move large substances without using transport proteins endocytosis and exocytosis
What are endocytosis and Exocytosis considered active transport they require an input of energy
describe endocytosis the cell surrounds a substance in the environment and encloses the substance in a portion of the plasma membrane..... the membrane forms a vacuole and pinches off and leaves the substance inside the cell
describe exocytosis during exocytosis the vesicle or vacuole moves to the membrane and fuses with the cell membrane to secrete the substances from the cell
how the the cell use exocytosis exocytosis is the secretion of materials from the plasma membrane.. exocytosis expels wastes and secretes substances such as hormones produced by the cell
what is meant by "with " the concentration gradient with the concentration gradient is from high to low concentration ( the normal direction that doesn't not require input of energy by the cell)... also called "down"
What is meant by "against" the concentration gradient against the concentration gradient means from low concentration to high concentration ( opposite the normal direction)... how the particles move during active transport w/ carrier proteins or transport proteins)
Created by: shemehl