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School-Age Child

Growth and Development

What is the psychosocial stage of development for school-age children? Industry v. Inferiorty
When do school-age children need immediate gratification for their work efforts? In the beginning of the school-age years.
When can children accept delayed rewards? By age 11
How does a sense of inferiority develop? Without reinforcement and praise
Describe peer relationships for school-age children? They're generally numerous and of short duration.
Whom do children prefer to play with? Members of the same sex
Is it normal for school-age children to be hostile towards family members? Yes
Should parents provide school-age children with privacy? Yes
What is a common fear among school-age children? Physical harm to self or family members
How can fears of physical harm be reduced? Give realistic reassurance, limit exposure to violent programming
Should parents provide school-age children with an allowance? Yes
Should allowances and home chores be kept separate? Yes
Does adult appearance or adult behavior come first? Adult appearance
What can anger represent in the school-age child? The child's frustration and need for independence.
What does physical discipline lead to? A decrease in the child's self-esteem
What are appropriate forms of discipline for the school-age child? Time outs and explanations of appropriate behavior
How are video games beneficial? Help develop hand-eye coordination and help strengthen problem-solving skills.
Who do bullies pick on? Individuals whose responses provide instant gratification.
What should parents do if their child is a bully? Emphasize that the behavior is unnaceptable,; set clear, firm rules with regard to social behavior, teach negotiation techniques, and set positive examples.
What are signs that a child is being bullied? Physical injuries, sleeping problems, irritability, poor concentration, problems with schoolwork, missing belongings or money, and frequent, unexplained psychosomatic complaints.
How should parents react if their child is bullied? Offer coping strategies, encourage participation in activities that build self-esteem, and avoid intervening if at all possible
Where are latch-key children more common? In rural areas
What is Piaget's stage of cognitive development for school-age children? Concrete operational thought
Describe concrete operational thought. Conservation and causation are mastered. They can place objects in order according to size (seriation). 7-8 year olds have collections of objects. They can take others' views into account.
How is school phobia manifested? Onset of various somatic complaints
What are some interventions for school phobia? Gently encourage a return to school, give support, and treat if necessary
Why do 6 year old children react to a situation in terms of morality? To be rewarded or to avoid punishment
What level or moral reasoning are older school-age children at according to Kohlberg? Conventional
How do older school-age children make moral decisions? Based on what their families or others in society expect of them.
Why do school-age children lie? To improve their self-esteem and status to win recognition; to help cope with new social pressures
Should lies be of concern to parents? No, as long as they're infrequent
When do children begin to show reciprocity? Age 11
How do school-age children use communication? To communicate their feelings, thoughts, and points of view.
Is a secret language normal among school-age children? Yes
What are causes of childhood obesity? Poor nutrition, unhealthy eating habits, social pressures, and genetics, socioeconomic factors
What is the psychological impact of childhood obesity? Decreased self-esteem
What is the style of play for the school-age child? Team play
What is the leading cause of death for school-age children? Motor vehicle accidents
What are the two most common factors that contribute to school violence? A breakdown in communication in the home and the availability of weapons
What are behaviors that can lead to violence? Difficulty getting along with peers, outbursts of temper, violence directed towards pets, decreased productivity, sleeping and eating patterns, social isolation, and preoccupation with violent media.
When should blood pressure monitoring begin? At age 3 years
What labs should be monitored yearly? Iron and cholesterol in blood and infection and diabetes mellitus in the urine
Should school-age children be encouraged to take responsibility for their own safety? Yes
What accounts for the majority of all childhood illnesses? Upper respiratory infections
Which region is scoliosis more common in? Thoracic
How often should dental checkups be conducted? Every 6 months
What is the first tooth to fall out? The lower central incisor
Describe sexual development in the school-age child. Normal period of latency (Freud). Sexually curious from ages 6-8.
Created by: shrewsbury_sd