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Foundations

Development Theories

QuestionAnswer
Jean Piaget Cognitive developmental theory that children developed in stages as they aged.
James Fowler Faith developmental theory that was based on the works of Piaget and Kohlberg. Comprised of pre-stage and six stages, which can occur at any age but the order remains the same.
Lawrence Kohlberg Moral developmental theory that was adapted from Piaget. Each level represents an individual's ability to more adequately respond to moral situations or dilemmas.
Sigmund Freud Psychoanalytic developmental theory that states one's personality is established by the age of 5. Sexuality or pleasure drive human behavior.
Erik Erikson Psycho social developmental theory expanded on Freud's work by including cultural and social influences.
Robert Havinghurst Psycho social developmental theory. Developmental tasks occur at certain ages. Six major stages in life.
Four stages of Piaget's theory Sensorimotor; Preoperational; Concrete; Formal
Fowler's six stages undifferentiated faith; intuitive-projective faith; mythical-literal faith; synthetic-conventional faith; individual-reflective faith; conjunctive faith; universalizing faith
Kohlberg's three levels pre conventional, conventional, and post conventional
Stages of Kohlberg's pre conventional level. L 1 Stage 1. Punishment or obedience. rules are fixed, obeying rules is important. Stage 2. instrumental relativist- actions are based on how they serve their own interest.
Stages of Kohlberg's conventional level. L 2 Stage 3. Social conformity; focused on living up to social expectations and roles, conformity and being "nice" are emphasized. Stage 4. Law and Order; able to consider society as a whole, following rules and doing one's duty is the focus.
Stages of Kohlberg's post conventional level. L 3 Stage 5. Social Contract; begin to account for differing values, laws important, but society as a whole should agree. 6. Universal ethics; follow internalized principles even if they conflict with society laws.
Carol Gilligan Asserts women and men develop personally and morally different. Women developed focusing on the connections and needs of others.
3 levels of Gilligan L1- selfishness; cares for themselves L2- Goodness; care of other people- mother or wife L3- Non violence- acceptance of principle of care for self and others and rules.
Four components of Freud's theory Unconscious mind; Id; Ego; Super Ego
Five developmental stages of Freud's theory Oral (birth-18mths); Anal (18mths--1-3yrs); Phallic(3-6yrs); Latency(6-12yrs); Genital(12-20yrs).
Erikson's stages Trust vs mistrust; autonamy vs shame/doubt; initiative vs guilt; industry vs inferiority; identity vs confusion; intimacy vs isolation; generativity vs stagnation; ego ingegrity vs despair.
Created by: lzg1973