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APBio Campbell Chp 9

All the vocab words from APBio Campbell/Reece 7th ed. Chp 9

TermDefinition
Fermentation a metabolic reaction that makes limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain that produces a characteristic end product.
Cellular respiration the most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway. In which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.
Redox reactions a chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another.
Oxidation In the redox reaction, the loss of electrons from one substance is called oxidation.
Reduction the addition of electrons to another substance.
Reducing agent the electron Donner in a redox reaction.
Oxidizing agent the electron accepter in a redox reaction
NAD Nicotinamide adenine dinecleotide, a coenzyme present in all cells that helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions of metabolism.
Electron transport train a sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
Glycolysis The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis is the one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration.
citric acid cycle A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic break down of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
Oxidation phosphorylation The energy released at each step of the chain is stored in a form the mitochondrion can use to make ATP.
substrate-level phosphorylation A model if ATP synthesis occurs when an enzyme transfer s a phosphate group from a substrate molecule to ADP.
Acetyl CoA The entry compound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a co-enzyme.
cytochrome an iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts.
ATP synthase provide a port through which hydrogen ions diffuse into the matrix of a mitochondrion.
chemiosmosis An energy coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work.
Proton-motive force The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis.
Aerobic Containing oxygen, referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
anaerobic Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it.
alcohol fermentation The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol
lactic acid fermentation The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide
facultative anaerobes An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if Oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions.
beta oxidation
Created by: millar