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Neoplasm vocab

QuestionAnswer
atrophy decrease in size and function of the cell
adenoma benign tumor that forms glands or originates from glands
anaplasia lack of differentiation
angiogenesis production of new blood vessels
aplasia absence of an organ, only rudiment present
benign non invasive, slow growing, well differentiated, no metastases
borderline malignancy tumor with low malignancy
cachexia progressive loss of lean body mass and fat with anorexia, weakness, and anemia. Due to reduced food intake and reduced syntheis and storage of fats
cancer disease resulting from a group of cells displaying uncontrolled growth, invasion, and metastases
carcinoid tumor of low malignant potential that is composed of neuroendocrine cells
carcinogen chemical, physical, or biological agent that can cause genetic damage leading to cancer
carcinoma malignant tumor of epithelial origin
carcinosarcoma tumor that is a mixture of carcinoma and sarcoma
choristoma ectopic rest, due to migration of a tissue
contact inhibition process of arresting cell growth when two or more cells come into contact with each other, allow us to distinguish between cancerous and non-cancerous cells
cystadenoma an adenoma with cystic areas
cystadenocarcinoma malignant adenoma with cystic areas
differentiation extent to which tumor cells resemble their normal counterparts
dermoid benign cystic teratoma that contains mature tissue
desmoid tumor with dense fibrous tissue
proto-oncogenes normal genes that play key roles in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation
desmoplasia formation of fibrosis
DNA repair gene not oncogenic, but when mutated allow mutations in other genes involved in normal cell division allowing limitless replication
dysplasia alteration in size, shape, and organization of the cellular components of a tissue
endophytic gross appearance of a tumor that is growing inwards
exophytic gross appearance of a tumor that is growing outwards
grade level of differentiation
hamaratom disorganized normal tissue
heterotopia displacement of an organ from its normal position
hyperplasia increase in the number of cells in a tissue
hypertrophy increase in size of the cells in an organ with an accompanying augmentation in functional capacity
hypoplasia reduced size due to incomplete development
in situ carcinoma where the basement membrane is still intact
initiation causes mutation within a cell
intraepithelial within the epithelium, ex: CIN
invasion reliable feature of malignancy, disruption of normal tissue
leukoplakia white patch on mucous membrane, may be inflammatory or neoplastic
low malignant potential tumor with low grade malignancy
malignant fast growing, poorly differentiated, invasive, metastases
medullary a soft cellular tumor with very little connective tissue
metaplasia conversion of one differentiated cell type to another
metastasis tumor impant discontinuous from the original tissue
microinvasion invasion of a tumor 0.1-0.5 cm in diameter
mixed tumor tumor of more than one cell type, chondroid syringoma
mucinous tumor with evidence of mucin production
neoplasia abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with normal tissue and persists in the same excessive manner after the cessation of the stimulus which evoked the damage
occult malignancy hidden malignancy
oncogene deregulated or altered proto-oncogenes that cause cancer
oncogenic has the ability to cause cancer due to a change in gene structure
oncology study of tumors
papilloma benign tumors with finger like projections
paraneoplastic syndrome symptom complex in cancer bearing patients that cannot be readily explained by local or distant spread of the tumor or elaboration of hormones indigenous to the tissue of origin
parenchyma functional parts of a tissue/organ
Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22), associated with CML
pleomorphism variation in shape and size
point mutation small mutation, change in one NA
polyp elevated mucousal lesion
premalignant a lesion that if left untreated may lead to cancer
prognosis likely outcome
progression the course of the disease
promotion causes clonal expansion of initiated cells through enzyme activation or by mutation
sarcoma malignant tumor of mesenchymal origin
scirrhous a hard, slow growing malignant tumor that has a lot of fibrous tissue
serous tumors producing water like fluid
stage the extent of the spread
tumor swelling or lesion caused by an abnormal growth of cells. Can be benign or malignant
tumor associated antigen can be present on some tumor cells and on some normal cells as well
tumor marker substance found in the blood, urine, or body tissues that can be elevated in cancer. May be elevated in other conditions as well though.
tumor specific antigen present only on tumor cells
tumor suppressor gene act as inhibitors of cell proliferation
Created by: kamarsh