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Honors Vocab Ch2

Honors Biology Vocab Ch2

TermDefinition
food web the overlapping food chains of an ecosystem
ecosystem a biological community and its abiotic environment
decomposers an organism that lives on decaying organic material from which it obtains energy
chemical energy energy stored in the structure of molecules
free energy energy that is available to do work
metabolism the sum of all the chemical changes taking place in an organism
producers an autotroph; any organism that produces its own food
consumers a heterotroph; an organism that feeds on other organisms or on their organic waste
abiotic factors referring to a physical or nonliving component of an ecosystem
biotic factors relating ro a living component of an ecosystem
ATP adenosine triphosphate; a compound that has three phosphate groups and is used by cells to store energy and to fuel many metabolic processes
ADP adenosine triphosphate; a compound that has three phosphate groups and is used to by cells to store energy and to fuel many metabolic processes
entropy a measure of the degree of disorganization of a system, that is, how much energy in a system has become so dispersed that is is no longer available to do work
synthesis the process of building chemical compounds from smaller components by means of chemical reactions
decomposition the process of breaking substances down into smaller chemical units
autotrophs an organism that forms its own food molecules (carbon compounds) from abiotic materials
first law of thermodynamics the law derived from the principle of the conversation of energy stating that energy can be neither created nor destroyed, but it can be transferred or transformed
second law of thermodynamics the law stating that energy transfers and transformations increase the entropy of the universe
enzymes a protein or part-protein molecule made by an organism and used as a catalyst in a specific biochemical reaction
villi fingerlike projections of the small intestine that increases surface area for absorption of digested food
pepsin a protein splitting enzyme secreted by the gastric glands of the stomach
trypsin an enzyme in pancreatic juice that breaks down protein molecules
lipase a fat-digesting enzyme
capillary a microscopic blood vessel penetrating the tissues and consisting of a single layer of cells that allows exchange between the blood and tissue fluids
feces the waste material expelled from the digestive tract
epiglottis flap of cartilaginous tissue at the base of the tongue in mammals; prevents food from entering the trachea, the airway to the lungs, during swallowing
salivary amylase an enzyme in saliva that begins digestion of starch; converts starch to disaccharides
intracellular digestion the breakdown of nutrients within a cell
extracellular digestion the breakdown of nutrient molecules outside of cells
active site the portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate through weak chemical bonds
substrate a molecule on which enzymes act
calatlyst a chemical that promotes a reaction between other chemicals by reducing the energy required to activate the reaction; may take part in the reaction but emerges in its original form
habitat type of place where an organism lives
biosphere the other potion of Earth--air, water, and soil--where life is found
heterotroph an organism that obtains carbon compounds from other organisms
chemical reactions change in chemical bonds that produces one of more new substances
Created by: anthony.patrick