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Nursing Fundamentals

Mod B Urinary/GI/Nutrition

URINARY ELIMINATION last step in the removal and elimination of excess water and the by-products of body metabolism
2 KIDNEYS filter waste products of metabolism from the blood; left usually higher than the right
2 URETERS transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder
BLADDER holds urine until the volume in bladder triggers an urge sensation to pass urine
URETHRA urine travels from the bladder to the outside of the body through these
NEPHRONS functional unit of the kidneys; removes waste products from the blood and play a role in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance
GLOMERULUS cluster of capillaries in the nephron
PROTEINURIA abnormal amount of protein in the urine
HEMATURIA presence of blood in the urine
URINARY REFLUX back flow of urine
MICTURITION complex interaction between the bladder, urinary sphincter and central nervous system; act of urination/voiding
VOIDING bladder emptying
URINARY RETENTION the inability to partially or completely empty the bladder
COMPLETE URINARY RETENTION no voiding; during partial retention; bladder never empties
ESCHERICHIA COLI a bacterium commonly found in the colon; most common causative pathogen E. COLI
BACTERIURIA bacteria in the urine
PYELONEPHRITIS inflammation of the substance of the kidney as a result of bacterial infection; upper UTI
BACTEREMIA life-threatening blood-stream infection
UROSEPSIS life-threatening blood-stream infection in the urinary tract
DYSURIA pain/discomfort associated with voiding
CYTITIS irritation of the bladder
URINARY INCONTINENCE (UI) involuntary loss of urine
STOMA surgically created opening in the abdominal wall
URINARY DIVERSIONS section of the intestine to create a storage reservoir or conduit for urine
URETEROSTOMY (ileal conduit) a permanent incontinent urinary diversion
NURSING HISTORY review of the patient's elimination patterns, symptoms of urinary alterations, and assessment of factors affecting normal urination
URINE HAT collects urine in the toilet
UROMETER device for measuring frequent and small amounts of urine from an indwelling catheter
CHARACTERISTICS OF URINE color (pale yellow - hydrated/amber - dehydrated) clarity (transparent); cloud means bacteria odor (ammonia) NO BLOOD OR PROTEIN IN THE URINE
NORMAL pH 4.6 - 8.0
RESIDUAL URINE bladder does not empty completely and volume is high
URINAL plastic/metal receptable for urine
POSTVOID RESIDUALS complete inability of the bladder to empty
URINARY CATHETERIZATION placement of a tube through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine
SINGLE-LUMEN CATHETER for intermittent/straight catheter
DOUBLE-LUMEN CATHETER indwelling catheter, one lumen for urinary drainage and a second lumen to inflate a balloon to keep in place
TRIPE-LUMEN CATHETER continuous bladder irrigation or when instilling medications into the bladder; one lumen drains the urine; second lumen inflates the balloon, third lumen delivers irrigation fluid into the bladder
INVASIVE sterile (catheters, wound)
NON-INVASIVE cat scan, xrays, etc
FRENCH SCALE (FR) sizing catheters scale
SUPRAPUBIC CATHETER a urinary drainage tube inserted surgically into the bladder through the abdominal wall above the symphysis pubis that is sutured to the skin when the urethra is blocked
CAUTI catheter associated UTI
CONDOM CATHETER (external catheter) a soft, pliable condom-like sheath that fits over the penis providing a safe and non-invasive way to contain urine
RESTORATIVE BLADDER CARE life style change pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) bladder retraining toileting schedules
INCONTINENCE-ASSOCIATED DERMATITIS (IAD) erythema and edema of the surface of the skin that is sometimes accompanied by bullae with serous exudates, erosion, or secondary cutaneous infection "skin irritation"
#1 bacteria that causes UTI E. COLI
PERISTALSIS contraction that propels food through the length of the GI tract
DEFECATION emptying of waste products out through the anus
CONSTIPATION having fewer than 3 bowel movements per week (hard stool)
FECAL IMPACTION unrelieved constipation (needs manually broken up)
DIARRHEA increase in the number of stools and the passage of liquid (unformed stools)
CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE (C. DIFF.) infection caused by antibiotics with the overgrowth of C-difficile
FECAL INCONTINENCE inability to control the passage of feces and gas from the anus
FLATULENCE accumulated excess gas
HEMORRHOIDS dilated, engorged veins in the lining of the rectum
STOMA temporary/permanent opening
MELENA black, sticky stool
FECAL OCCULT BLOOD TEST (FOBT) measures microscopic amounts of blood in feces
COLONOSCOPY procedure done through the anus to examine the colon
COLOSTOMY surgical opening in the colon
ILEOSTOMY opening in the small intestine (ileum) bypassing the large intestine
LAXATIVE drug that acts to promote bowel evacuation
CATHARTICS drug that acts to promote bowel evacuation
ILEUS temporary cessation of peristalsis
ENEMA an instillation of a solution into the rectum and sigmoid colon
PATH OF DIGESTION mouth esophagus stomach small intestine (duodenum-jejunum-ileum) large intestine (cecum-ascending colon-transverse colon- descending colon-sigmoid colon) rectum anus
NURIENT a chemical substance that provides nourishment and affects metabolic and nutritive processes
ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS carbohydrates proteins lipids vitamins minerals water
NUTRIENTS THAT PROVIDE ENERGY carbohydrates proteins lipids
CARBOHYDRATES composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; they are starches and sugars obtained mainly from plant foods; 90% total caloric intake
CARBOHYDRATES HAVE 4 kilocalories per gram ( 4 kcal/g )
FIBER carbohydrate; natural part of a plant; prevents diarrhea
AMINO ACIDS the building blocks of proteins and are made of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen; synthesis of body tissue in growth, repair, and maintenance
NITROGEN BALANCE the achievement of equal nitrogen input and output
FATS (lipids) -are compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents (e.g. ethanol/acetone) -make up of triglycerides and fatty acids
FATS HAVE 9 kilocalories per gram ( 9 kcal/g )
VITAMINS organic substances present in small amounts of food and are essential for normal metabolism; water and fat soluble
WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS C and B complex (stored in limited amounts)
FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS A, D, E, and K (stored for longer periods)
MINERALS inorganic elements that catalyze biochemical reactions and help balance the pH in the body
WATER -normal cell function depends on an aqueous environment so water is an important nutrient
METABOLISM all of the bodily biochemical and physiological processes
ANABOLISM the production of more complex chemical substances by synthesis of nutrients needed to build or repair body tissue
CATABOLISM the breakdown of body tissues into simpler substances
LIVER major metabolic processes occur
GLUCOSE primary fuel for the body
GLYCOGENESIS liver and muscles store glucose in the form of glycogen
GLUCONEOGENESIS body breaks down fat and amino acids for conversion to glucose
BASAL METABOLIC RATE ( BMR ) the energy needs of a person at rest after awakening
DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES ( DRIs ) nutrient reference values developed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM); guide as good nutrition and provide scientific basis for development of food guidelines in U.S. and Canada
EAR estimated average requirement
RDA recommended dietary allowance
AI adequate intake
UL tolerance upper intake levels
1997 Health People 2020; promote health and reduce chronic disease related to diet and weight
VEGETARIAN plant based and elimination of animal-based foods
OVOLACTOVEGETARIAN avoid meat, fish and poultry, but eat eggs and milk
LACTOVEGETARIAN drink milk, but avoid eggs and animal-based foods
VEGAN only eat plant origin foods
BODY MASS INDEX ( BMI ) dividing weight in kg. by height in meters squared
NORMAL BMI 18.5 - 24.9
OVERWEIGHT 24.9 and above
OBESE 29.9 and above
ANTHROPOMETRY systematic measurement of the size and makeup of the body using height and weight as the principle measures
IDEAL BODY WEIGHT ( IBW ) normal height-weight relationship
DYSPHAGIA difficulty swallowing
BOTULISM improperly home canned foods, smoked and salted fish, ham, sausage and shellfish
ESCHERICHIA COLI ( E. COLI ) undercooked meat (beef)
LISTERIOSIS soft cheese, meat (hot dogs, lunchmeat), unpasteurized milk, poultry and seafood
PERFRINGENS ENTERITIS cooked meats or dishes held at room or warm temperature
SALMONELLOSIS milk, custards, egg dishes, salad dressing, sandwich fillings, polluted shellfish
SHIGELLOSIS milk, milk products, seafood and salads
STAPHYLOCOCCUS custards, cream fillings, processed meats, ham, cheese, ice cream, potato salad, sauces and casseroles
ENTERAL NUTRITION (EN) administration of nutrients and fluid into the stomach/intestinal tract via a feeding tube
NG TUBE through the nose and into the small intestine
PARENTERAL NUTRITION (PN) administration of a solution consisting of glucose, amino acids, minerals, electrolytes, trace elements and vitamins through a peripheral/central venous catheter
MEDICAL NUTRITION THERAPY ( MNT ) the use of specific nutritional therapies to treat an illness, injury or condition
BOLUS meal-like
Created by: Smccunn
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