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Science Chapter 2

photosynthesis The process by which plants and some other organisms capture the energy in sunlight and use it to make food.
Autotroph An organism that makes its own food.
Heterotroph An organism that cannot make its own food.
Pigment A colored chemical compound that absorbs light.
Chlorophyll A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria.
Stomata Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move.
Respiration The process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release energy they contain.
Fermentation The process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen.
Cell Cycle The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo.
Interphase The stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs.
Replication The process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA and its nucleus.
Mitosis The stage of the cell cycle during which the cells nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell.
Chromosome A double rod of condensed chromatin. It contains DNA that carries genetic information.
Cytokinesis The final stage of the cell cell cycle in which the cell's cytoplasm divides.
Cancer A disease in which some body cells grow and divide uncontrollably, damaging the parts of the body around them.
Mutation A change in a gene or chromosomes.
Tumor A mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably.
Chemotherapy The use of drugs to treat diseases such as cancer.
Nearly all living things obtain energy from the energy of ___________ captured during _____________________. sunlight, photosynthesis
During photosynthesis, plants and some other organisms use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and ____________ into _________ and _____________. water, oxygen, sugars
During ____________, cells break down simple food molecules such as sugar and release the ___________they contain. respiration, energy
Fermentation provides energy for cells without using ________________. oxygen
During _____________________, the cell grows, makes a copy of its ______, and prepares to divide into _________ daughter cells. interphase, DNA, two
During _________________, one copy of the DNA is distributed into each of two _______________________ cells. mitosis, daughter
During ________________, the cytoplasm divides. The organelles are distributed into each of two new ______________. cytokinesis, cells
Because of the way in which the nitrogen bases pair with each other, the order of the bases in each new _________ molecule exactly matches the order in the _________________DNA molecule. DNA, original
_______________ begins when mutations disrupt the normal cell cycle , causing cell to divide in an __________________ way. Cancer, uncontrolled
There are three common ways to treat cancer: ____________, ______________, and ___________ that destroy the cancer cells. surgery, radiation, drugs
Explain the two stages of photosynthesis: Stage One: Capturing the sun's energy Stage Two: Using energy to make food
Photosynthesis Equation 6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2
Write the photosynthesis equation using words Carbon dioxide + water - light energy - sugar + oxygen
In DNA, which nitrogen base pairs with G? Cytosine
In DNA, which nitrogen base pairs with T? Andenine
Which treatment for cancer would one use if the cancer is found all throughout the body? Chemotherapy
Which treatment for cancer would one use if he cancer is localized in one mass called a tumor? Surgery
Which treatment for cancer is only in one organ, but it is spread out throughout that organ? Radiation
What are the six stages of the cell cycle? Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis
What happens during Interphase? The cell grows to its mature size, makes a copy of DNA and prepares to divide into two cells
What happens during Prophase? Chromatin in the nucleus condenses to form chromosomes
What happens during Anaphase? The centrosomes split, the two chromatids separate, and each chromatid becomes a new chromosome. The new chromosomes mice to opposite ends of the cell.
What happens during Telophase? The chromosomes begin to stretch out and lose their rodlike appearance. A nuclear envelope forms around each region of chromosomes.
What happens during Cytokinesis? The cell membrane pinches in around the middle of the cell and the cell splits in two.
Explain the two stages of respiration 1. In the cytoplasm glucose is broken down and a small amount of energy is released. 2. In the mitochondria the smaller molecules are mixed with carbon dioxide and water and a large amount of energy is released.
Respiration Equation C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
Write the respiration equation using words Sugar + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water
Created by: Achenry45