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9th ENV Ch 3.2

9th ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Chapter 3-section 2 OUTLINE

QuestionAnswer
ATMOSPHERE The __________ is a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet, such as Earth.
GASES Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other ______ are all parts of this mixture .
INSULATES The atmosphere also __________ Earths surface.
SURVIVE This insulation slows the rate at which Earths surface loses heat and keeps Earth temperature at which living things can ________.
78% Nitrogen makes up ___ of Earths atmosphere, and enters the atmosphere when volcanoes erupt and when dead plants and animals decay.
OXYGEN _________ is the second most abundant gas in the atmosphere and is primarily produced by plants.
DUST In addition to gases, the atmosphere contains many types of tiny, solid particles, or atmospheric ____.
METHANE In addition to nitrogen and oxygen, other gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, _______ and water vapor make up the Earths surface.
GRAVITY Earths atmosphere is pulled toward Earths surface by ________ and as a result, the atmosphere is denser near the Earths surface.
30 km Almost the entire mass of Earths atmospheric gases is located within ____ of the surface.
HIGHER Air also becomes less dense with elevation, so breathing at _______ elevations is more difficult.
FOUR The atmosphere is divided into __ layers based on temperature changes that occur at different distances above Earths surface.
TROPOSPHERE The ____________ is the lowest layer of the atmosphere in which temperature drops at a constant rate as altitude increases.
WEATHER This is the part of the atmosphere where ______ conditions exist
DENSEST The troposphere is Earths _______ atmospheric layer and extends to 18 km above Earths surface.
STRATOSPHERE The __________ is the layer of the atmosphere that lies immendiately above the troposphere and extends from about 18 to 50 km above Earths surface.
RISE Temperature _______ as altitude increases because ozone in the stratosphere absorbs the suns ultraviolet energy and warms the air
OZONE _______ is a gas molecule that is made up of three oxygen atoms and is concentrated in the stratosphere.
ULTRAVIOLET Because ozone absorbs ____________ radiation, it reduces the amount of harmful UV radiation that does reach Earth can damage living cells
MESOPHERE The layer above the stratosphere is the ___________
COLDEST This is the ________ layer of the atmosphere where temperatres have been measured as low as -93 C
THERMOSPHERE The atmospheric layer located farthest from Earths surface is the ______
IONSHERE The absorption of X rays and gamma rays by nitrogen and oxygen causes atoms to become electrically charged called ions, and the lower thermosphere is called ions, and the lower theremosphere is called the ____________
RADIATION ____________ is the energy that is transferred as electromagnetic waves, such as visible light and infrared waves.
CONDUCTION ________ is the transfer of energy as heat through a material.
CONVECTION __________ is the movement of matter due to differences in density that are caused by temperature variations an can result in the transfer of energy as heat
CONVECTION CURRENT The continual process of warm air rising and cool air sinking and moving air in a circular motion is called a _________ ________
GREEN HOUSE EFFECT The ___________ _______ is the warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of the Earth that occurs when carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases in the air absorb and reradiate infrared radiation.
COLD Without the greenhouse effect, Earth would be too ____ for life to exist.
CARBON DIOXIDE The most abundant greenhouse gases are water vapor, ___________ , methane, and nitrous oxide, although none exist in high concentrations.
INDUSTRIAL The quantities of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere vary considerably as a result of natural and ________ processes.
Created by: asimien907