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Biology Chapter 2

Paradigm Accelerated Curriculum

TermDefinition
Second law of Thermodynamics The amount of disorder (entropy) in a system tends to increase, always tending toward less usable energy, or energy that can do useful work
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Energy storage compound in cells; composed of a sugar adenosine and 3 phosphate groups
Celluar Respiration The process by which the cell converts a food fuel such as glucose into ATP in the presence of oxygen
Kinetic Energy The energy of motion, which is related directly to speed of that motion
Cilium A microscopic hair; plural is cilia; cilia are attached to certain kinds of cells that line certain body passageways
Entropy Measure of the unusable or unavailable energy in a system; also the measure of the disorder in a system
Free Energy Usable energy in a chemical system: energy available for producing change
Potential Energy The energy stored by matter as a result of its location or position
Glycolysis A series of reactions in which a molecule of glucose is broken down to produce a new gain of two ATP molecules.
Coenzymes or Cofactors Additional molecules that are required before an enzyme will catalyze a reaction; many are from vitamins and each can be reused repeatedly.
NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) A coenzyme present in all cells and is required in a cellular respiration
FAD (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide) A coenzyme present in all cells and is required in a cellular respiration
Coenzyme A (CoA) A coenzyme present in all cells and is required in a cellular respiration
Respectively Referencing a series of items in the order listed
PGAL (PhosphoGylcerALdehyde) An intermediate molecule formed in the process of glycolysis
Pyruvic Acid The end-product molecule of glycolysis
Anaerobic step A reaction step that requires no oxygen for completion
Fermentation Regeneration of NAD+ to keep glycolysis running in the absence of oxygen
Cristae The inner, infolded membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the third stage of respiration; increases the surface area within the mitochondrial matrix; enables the cell to produce larger amounts of energy
Mitochondrial matrix The compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane; contains enzymes and substrates for the Krebs Cycle
Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle A series of reactions in which the chemical bonds in pyruvic acid are broken to produce one molecule of ATP and five, high energy electrons
Oxaloacetic Acid A 4-carbon intermediate compound in the Krebs Cycle which, when combined with acetyle CoA, initiates the Krebs Cycle
Citric Acid The 6-carbon intermediate compound in the Krebs Cycle (or Citric Acid Cycle)
Created by: flymarla