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7th Grade Cells

7th grade cell review for 7th grade adv. science

How are organisms organized from smallest to largest? - tissues - organs - organ systems - organism
Define Cells - membrane covered structure that contains all the materials necessary for life
Explain Hooke and Van Leeuwenhoek's contributions to cell study. Robert Hooke - saw first cells in cork Anton Van Leeuwenhoek - first observed living cells in pond water
Explain all three parts of the cell theory. - all organisms are composed of one or more cells - cell is the basic unit of life in all living things - all cells come from other cells
What are the two basic shapes of cells and which is animal and which is plant's? Plant cell - square Animal cell - usually round
Explain how the size of the cell limits how big a cell can grow. Be sure to include volume and surface area in your answer. Cells are small because the surface is not large enough to bring in enough nutrients or get rid of enough waste to keep cell alive. The inside grows faster than outside. (Big or small organisms have the same size of cells.)
What is the difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells? Prokaryote - bacteria (one celled organism), no nucleus Eukaryote - have nucleus, animal cells (more than one celled organism)
Explain cell membrane. - allows nutrients and waste to move into and out of cell - made of phospholipids that do not like water so it is semipermeable - all cells have a cell membrane
Explain cytoplasm. - jellylike material that surrounds organelles
Explain ribosomes. What do they make? - smallest and most abundant organelle - where amino acids hook together to make proteins
Explain endoplasmic reticulum. What are its jobs? Sacks and tunnels of membranes that carry substances to outside of cell; break down chemicals that harm cells. Types- Rough- covered with ribosomes Smooth- not covered with ribosomes
Explain golgi bodies. - flattened stacked membranes - changes lipids into proteins from rough ER, pinches them off into vesicles and ships them out of the cell - vesicle: membrane bound structure that carries substances from golgi bodies - helps create lysosomes
Explain nucleus and nucleolus. nucleus - largest organelle, stores DNA nucleolus - in nucleus, stores material used to make ribosomes
What is DNA? - deoxyribonucleic acid. Contains all the information to tell the organelles and the cell what to do.
What is the relationship between golgi bodies and vesicles? Golgi bodies change lipids and proteins from rough ER, pinches them off into sacks (vesicles) and the vesicles ship the lipids and proteins out of the cell.
What are vacuoles? - sack that contains water, waste material, food - makes up most of cells volume
Explain lysosomes. - contain digestive enzymes - breakdown old cells and bacteria - "garbage trucks" of the cell
Explain the importance of mitochondria. What happens in the mitochondria? What is cristae and why is it important? Include surface area in you answer. - energy is released in this organelle from glucose being broken down - active organs like muscles have more mitochondria - has cristae-inner folds that increase the surface area so more glucose can be broken down and more energy (ATP) released
Explain chloroplasts. - contain chlorophyll-green pigment - absorb sunlight where photosynthesis occurs and glucose (sugar) is made
What type of cell contains cell walls and why are cell walls important? - made of cellulose - tough and rigid - helps maintain the shape of the cell
Define magnification. how much larger a specimen is when using a microscope
List in order from the ability to magnify the least amount to the most amount... the three types of microscopes in our notes. Light microscope (LM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM)
Define light microscope. - the models found in most schools - use compound lenses and light to magnify objects - the lenses bend or refract the light, which makes the object beneath them appear closer
Define scanning electron microscope (SEM). Scanning electron microscope-do not use light waves; use electrons to look at surface of object -magnify objects up to 500,000x -if you want to look at the surface of object, you may have to cover the surface with very thin layer of gold
Define transmission electron microscope (TEM). transmission electron microscope- aims beam of light through thin slices of specimen - thicker pieces appear darker - magnifies up to 1,000,000x
Define tissues. tissues- group of cells that work together to perform a specific job
Define organ. two or more tissues working together to perform a specific job
Define organ system. Give one example. group of organs working together Examples- digestive, respiratory
Created by: 19emaston