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microbiology

several of descriptions with blanks

descriptions with blanksthe answers to the blanks
(Bacteria>symbiosis) the relationship between the human body and the normal flora is an example of #1. In some cases the #2 is #3 to both the human body and the micro-organisms.this relationship is called #4. #1-symbiosis #2-symbiosis #3-beneficial #4-muturalism
(bacteria>symbiosis) In other cases, symbiosis is #1 only to the micro-organisms. this is called #2. #1-beneficial #2-commensalism
(bacteria>vaccine) vaccine contain #1 that have usually been altered in some way that means they do not cause #2 in the #3 or the #4 are much less #5. #1-micro-organism #2-diease #3-host #4-symptoms #5-severe
(bacteria>vaccine) the #1 can produce #2 in the response to the #3 which means the human body will be #4 if it is ever exposed to the #5 again. the human body will be able to make #6 much quicker in #7 concentrations and for much #8. #1-host #2-antibodies #3 vaccine #4-prepared #5-micro-organism #6-antibodies #7-higher #8-longer
(bacteria>beneficial bacteria>Escherichia coli) gram #1 bacterium normally found in the #2, produces #3 called #4 which #5 growth of the other bacteria of the same or closely related #6.this is called #7. #1-negative #2-intestine #3-protein #4-bacteriocins #5-inhibits #6-species #7-microbial antagonism
(bacteria>beneficial bacteria>Escherichia coli) genetic engineering has meant that Ecoli can produce #1.the #2 is isolated from #3, purified and #4 into the #5 by a #6.the #7 is then produced through #8.#9 can be massed produced to give to #10. #1-insulin #2-gene #3-humans #4-inserted #5-bacteria #6-plasmid #7-protein #8-cellular synthesis #9-insulin #10-diabetes suffers
(bacteria>natural habitats) water - #1 human body - #2 soil - #3 room surface - #4 #1-vibrio cholerae #2-Escherichia coli #3-streptomyces #4-staphlococcus aureus
(bacteria>beneficial bacteria) the normal flora:#1 of #2 that #3 the #4 without necessarily causing #5. #1-population #2-micro-organism #3-infect #4-human body #5-diease
(bacteria>beneficial bacteria) normal flora #1 the #2 by preventing the #3 of #4 organisms. this is called #5, and it involves #6 between #7. #1-benefit #2-host #3-overgrowth #4-harmful #5-microbial antagonism #6-competition #7-micro-organism
(bacteria>beneficial bacteria) when the #1 is #2.#3 can occur.things such as as #4 could reduce #5 and allow #6 to #7 in its place. #1-balance #2-upset #3-diease #4-antibiotic therapy #5-bacterial populations #6-opportunisitic micro-organism #7-grow
(bacteria>beneficial bacteria) the #1 in the human body is #2 as: it #3 the #4 of #5 substances. it #6 against the #7 by #8. #1-natural flora #2-beneficial #3-aids #4-production #5-beneficial #6-protects #7-colonisation #8-pathogens
(bacteria>beneficial bacteria) organisms of the #1 are introduced when the #2 passes through the #3, begins #4 and #5. within #6 most of the organisms of the #7 have appeared. #1-normal flora #2-child #3-birth canal #4-breathing #5-feeding #6-2,3 days #7-normal flora
(bacteria>detrimental bacteria>pathogens) #1 is the #2 of a #3 to gain #4 to the #5 and cause #6 or #7 change, causing a change in #8 and thus #9. #1-pathogenicity #2-ability #3-parasite #4-entry #5-hosts tissue #6-physiological #7-anatomical #8-health #9-diease
(bacteria>detrimental bacteria>pathogens>bacillus anthracis) cause #1 in #2. a #3 that can be passed into the #4 from the #5 via #6 or #7 into the #8, or #9 in #10. the #11 release a #12 of #13 which cause #14 or #15 #1-anthrax #2-humans #3-bacterium #4-human body #5-soil #6-cut #7-inhaled #8-lungs #9-ingested #10-contaminate meat #11-bacteria #12-number #13-toxins #14-necrosis(tissue death) #15-oedema
(bacteria cell parts>mesosomes) #1 are #2 in the bacterial #3 found in gram #4 and gram #5 bacteria. various functions including- involved in #6 and #7 involved in #8 play a role in #9 and #10 #1-mesosomes #2-folds #3-cell membrane #4-positive #5-negative #6-DNA replication #7-segregation #8-cell wall synthesis #9-respiration #10-photosynthesis
(bacteria cell parts>inclusion bodies) #1 are bodies of #2 within the #3. they have different #4 depending on the #5 of #6 they are. #1-inclustion bodies #2-reserve material #3-cell #4-roles #5-type #6-cell
(bacteria cell parts>periplasmic space) #1 is the #2 between the #3 and the #4. gram #5 bacteria:either #6 or is #7 gram #8 bacteria:have #9 #1-periplasmic space #2-border #3-cell membrane #4-cell wall #5-positive #6-do not have #7-small #8-negative #9-large periplasmic space
(bacteria cell parts>flagella) #1 are #2 made of the #3. they allow the #4 to be #5 and can #6 beyond the #7 up to #8 the length of the #9. the #10 at up to #11 per #12. #1-flagella #2-filamentous structures protein flagellin #3-cell #4-cell #5-motile #6-extend #7-cell wall #8-10 times #9-cell #10-flaglla rotates #11-60 revolutions #12-seconds
(bacteria cell parts>flagella) flaglla arrangement #1 distribution can be one of #2 types. 1)#3-#4 flanglla at #5 of cell. 2)#6-a #7 flaglla at #8 of the cell 3)#9-a short #10 of flaglla at #11 of cell 4)#12-#13 flaglla over #14. #1-flagella #2-four #3-monotrichous #4-one #5-one pole #6-amphitichous #7-single #8-both pole #9-lophotrichous #10-cluster #11-one or both pole #12-peritrichous #13-lateral #14-whole surface
(bacteria cell parts>pili) #1 or #2 are short #3 structures found in #4 gram #5 or gram #6 bacteria. they have #7 distinct functions 1)#8-#9 2)#10-bring about #11 or #12 in bacteria through a process of #13. #1-pili #2-fimbrae #3-hair like #4-both #5-positive #6-negative #7-two #8-common pili #9-specific adherence #10-F pili #11-genetic exchange #12-mating #13-conjugation
(bacteria cell parts>biofilms) a #1 is formed when #2 to a #3, produce slime and then #4 forming #5 within the slime layer.the #6 provides an #7, #8 environment for themselves and other #9 forming a #10 environment. #1-biofilm #2-bacteria attach #3-surface #4-divide #5-micro-colonies #6-biofilm #7-enrich #8-protected #9-bacteria #10-complex bacterial
(bacteria cell parts>biofilms) function of biofilms 2)#1 from engulfment by #2 and by #3 (#4). 3)#5 against attacks by #6. 4)excludes #7 and other #8. 5)#9 against desiccation. 6)#10 in #11 by helping #12 to resist #13 by #14. #1-protect bacterial cell #2-protozoa #3-white blood cell #4-phagcytosis #5-protect #6-anti-microbial agents #7-viruses #8-toxic materials #9-protect #10-aids #11-phagocytosis #12-bacteria #13-phagocytosis #14-phagocytes
(bacteria cell parts>bacterial endospores) #1 are a #2, highly #3 that allow #4 to survive in #5 environment. they are typically gram #6 bacteria with the most notable being the #7. #1-bacteria endospores #2-protective #3-resistant structure #5-hostile #6-positive #7-bacillus genus
(bacteria cell parts>bacterial endospores) #1 are known as #2 in that they show no sign of life,however they ensure the #3 remains #4 when environment conditions return to #5. #1-endospores #2-cyptobiotic #3-cell #4-viable #5-normal
(bacteria cell parts>bacteria endospores) bacterial endospores can survive: 1)#1 2)#2 3)#3 4)#4 5)#5 6)#6 #1-high temperature #2-irradiation #3-desiccation #4-strong acid #5-organic solvent #6-disinfectant
(viruses) #1 are small, #2 (they only cause #3 once they have #4) #5. #1-viruses #2-obligate #3-infections #4-infect the host orgainm cell #5-intracellular parasites
(viruses>viruses structure) #1 vary in #2 and #3, however they are always composed of #4 parts. 1)#5 2)#6 #1-viruses #2-size #3-arrangement #4-two component #5-nucleic acid #6-capsid (protein coat)
(viruses>viruses structure>T4 bacteriophage) #1 use the #2 to attach to #3 it wants to #4. #1-T4 bacteriophage #2-tail fibres #3-cells #4-invade
(viruses>viruses structure>human immunodeficiency viruse) the #1 use #2 present on their #3 to attach to #4. #1-HIV #2-glycoproteins #3-surface #4-host cells
(viruses>retroviruses) #1 is termed a #2.it is a #3 because it #4 is #5 rather than #6.this means the #7 process must be altered in order for the #8 information to be incorporated into the #9. #1-HIV #2-retrovirus #3-retrovirus #4-nucleic acid #5-RNA #6-DNA #7-replication #8-genetics #9-host cell DNA
(viruses>viruse reproduction in HIV) this is a five step process: 1)#1 fuses with #2. 2)#3 produced using #4. 3)#5 incorporated in #6. 4)#7 undergoes #8 to provides component parts for #9. 5)#10 escapes #11 to cause further #12. #1-viral DNA membrane #2-cell membrane #3-viral DNA #4-reverse transcriptase #5-viral #6-host DNA #7-viral DNA #8-protein synthsis #9-new viruses #10-virus #11-host #12-infection
(viruses>anti-viral drugs) #1 utilise #2 machinery.because of this, if a #3 interferes with #4 it will therefore target the #5 itself and cause #6.which can lead to #7. #1-viruses #2-host cell #3-drug #4-viral replication #5-host cell #6-damages #7-side effects
(viruses>natural habitats) water-#1 human-#2 soil-#3 rooms-#4 #1-SARS(severe acute respiratory syndrome) #2-viruses wont inhabit a human as habitat #3-wheat streak mosaic virus #4-influenza
(viruses>benefis from a virus>gene therapy) #1 are rontinely used #2 as a means of #3.the #4 of interest is #5 into the #6 by the #7 and is most commonly used to target #8. #1-viruses #2-gene therapy #3-modifying model organisms #4-genes #5-inserted #6-host cell #7-cancer cell
(viruses>detrimental virus>herpes simplex) #1 is a #2 transmitted via #3 or #4 and cause small #5. #1-herpes simplex #2-virus #3-sores #4-oval secretion #5-blisters
(viruses>viruses structure>structural components of viruses) structural components of viruses 1)#1 2)#2 3)#3 #1-nucleic acid #2-envelope #3-capsid
(viruses>viruses structure>nucleic acid) #1 is either in form of #2 or #3 (can be #4 or #5 stranded). it #6 for #7 and #8 used for #9. the extent of the #10 is limited however it is responible for #11 main types of #12: 1)#13 2)#14 #1-viral nucleic acid #2-DNA #3-RNA #4-single #5-double #6-codes #7-viral proteins #8-enzymes #9-replication #10-genome #11-two #12-protein #13-structural #14-regulatory(enzymes)
(viruses>viruses structure>envelope) some #1 have #2 derivied from the #3. this is usally present outside of the #4. the #5 penetration of the #6. the #7 may contain #8 such as #9 in #10 (to catalyse #11 to #12) or #13 (degradation of #14). #1-viruses #2-envelope #3-host cell membrane #4-protein coat #5-membrane aids #6-host cell membrane #7-membrane #8-specific enzymes #9-reverse transcriptase #10-retroviruses #11-RNA #12-DNA #13-protease #14-proteins
(viruses>viruses structure>capsid) the #1 is built from #2 units called #3 (#4 subunits). the #5 has two main functions: #6 from attacks by #7 such as #8. the #9 contains #10 which involves in the #11 and #12 of #13 to #14. #1-capsid #2-identical proteins #3-capsomeres #4-idenitical protein #5-capsid #6-protect viral genetics materials #7-cellular enzymes #8-nuclease #9-capsid #10-spikes #11-reconition #12-attachment #13-viruses #14-host cell
(viruses>viral replication/lytic cycle>extracellular stage) extracellular stage- #1:#2 on #3binds to #4 on the #5. #6:#7 inject its #8 into #9 or #10 enters #11 and #12 is released from #13. #1-attachment #2-attachment site #3-viruses #4-surface receptors #5-host cell #6-penetration #7-virus #8-genome #9-host cell #10-viruses #11-cells #12-viral genome #13-capsid
(viruses>viral replication/lytic cycle>intracellular) intracellular stage- #1:#2 undergoes #3, using the #4 and #5 and #6 components are #7. #8 and #9:#10 components and #11 are packaged and buildup into #12 which fully develop. #1-replication #2-viral DNA #3-protein synthesis #4-host cells organelles #5-energy #6-new viral #7-synthesis #8-assembly #9-maturation #10-viral #11-enzymes #12-new virons
(viruses>viral replication/lytic cycle>intracellular) #1:newly produced #2 are #3 from the #4 when the #5 (#6 open). this can be triggered by #7 or as a result of #8. #1-exit #2-viruses #3-expelled #4-host cell #5-host cell lyses #6-burst #7-virus #8-autolysis
(gram staining) #1 can be classified depending on the content of #2 in their #3.it is the main component of the #4. 1)gram #5-contain a thicc layer of #6 in their #7 (#8).they will retain the #9. 2)gram #10-contain little #11 (#12) and retain the #13. #1-bacteria #2-peptidoglycan #3-cell wall #4-bacterial outer membrane #5-positive bacteria #6-peptidoglycan #7-cell wall #8-(20-30 nm) #9-purple crystal violet dye #10-negative bacteria #11-peptidoglycan #12-(1-3 nm) #13-pink,safranin
(gram staining>peptidoglycan) #1 is a #2 that consist of a #3 of #4 and #5. #1-peptidoglycan #2-large polymer #3-backbone #4-alternating NAG #5-NAM molecules
(gram staining>gram positive cell wall) gram #1-contain #2 that confer a #3. #1-positive cell wall #2-teichoic acid #3-negitive charge
(gram staining>gram negative cell wall) gram #1-dont contain #2, but contain #3 which is an #4. #5 play a role in #6 as they contain #7 (#8 is the #9 component of the #10). #1-negative cell wall #2-teichioic acid #3-lipopolysacchride (LPS) #4-endotoxin #5-endotoxin #6-infection #7-lipid A #8-lipid A #9-toxic #10-LPS endotoxin
(gram staining>gram negative cell wall) gram #1 have an #2 and #3 (which is usally #4 or very #5 in gram #6). this #7 determines the #8 (ability of #9) of the #10. #1-negative cell wall #2-outer membrane #3-periplamic space #4-absent #5-small #6-positive bacteria #7-toxicity #8-virulence #9-diease #10-bacterium
(gram staining>cell wall function) cell wall function 1)gives #1 shape. 2)provides #2 from#3 and #4 3)plays a role in #5 and #6 4)#7 have component which contribute to #8 5)#9 of #10 of many #11 #1-bacterial cell #2-protection #3-osmotic lysis #4-toxic sunstances #5-cell division #6-motilty #7-pathogenic bacteria #8-pathogenicity #9-site #10-action #11-anti-biotics
(gram staining>peptidoglycan>function of peptidoglycan) function of #1:involve in #2 and #3. #1-peptidoglycan #2-shape #3-integrity
(gram staining>teichoic acid>function of teichoic acid) function of #1:confer #2 an d #3 (ability to bind to #4) in gram #5.#6 attachment of #7 to #8. #1-teichoic acid #2-negative charge #3-anti-genicity #4-surface receptors #5-positive bacterial cells #6-aids #7-bacterial cell #8-tissues
(gram staining>LPS>function of LPS) function of #1:confer #2 (#3).determines #4 (how strong that #5 is) #1-LPS (endotoxin) #2-toxicity #3-lipid A #4-virulence #5-diease
(gram staining>membrane>function of outer membrane) function of #1 1)forms the #2 of the #3. 2)helps the #4 evade #5 and the #6 of #7 (#8 of the #9). 3)provides a #10. 4)allow passage of #11 through #12. 5)#13 for #14 (#15). 6)attachment#16 for#17. #1-outer membrane#2-outer limit#3-periplasmic space#4-bacterial cell#5-phagocytosis#6-action#7-complement#8-activation#9-immune response#10-permeability barrier #11-nutrients#12-porius#13-receptors#14-F pilus#15-conjugation #16-site#17-bacterial viruses
(bacteria) #1:are #2 organisms (lack a defined #3). 1)#4(#5) 2)#6(lack #7 in #8) #1-bacteria #2-prokaryotic #3-nucleus #4-eubacteria #5-true bacteria #6-archaeobatria #7-peptidoglycan #8-cell wall
(bacteria>bacterial morphology) #1(#2):different #3 have different #4 which helps us charaterise and differentiate it from other type of #5. #1-bacterial morphology #2-shape #3-bacteria species #4-shapes #5-shapes micro-organisms
(bacteria>cell division) #1:there are #2 possible arrangement of #3 which do not #4 after #5.they can arrange in #6 forms 1)#7 20#8 #1-cell division #2-two #3-bacterial cells #4-separate #5-cell division #6-two #7-cluster #8-chains
(bacteria>bacteria structure) #1 have #2 essential structural components 1)A #3 2)#4 3)#5 4)#6 5)#7(may form part of the #8) #1-bacteria #2-five #3-genome (DNA) #4-ribosomes #5-cell membrane #6-cell wall #7-surface layer #8-wall
(bacteria>cell membrane>function of cell membrane) function of #1 1)selectively #2 2)separates the #3 and the unit #4 from its environment. 3)provides #5 for movement of #6 or #7 across the #8. 4)#9 of #10 and #11. 5)in #12 it is the #13 of #14. #1-cell membrane #2-permeable membrane #3-cytoplasm #4-bacterial cell #5-transport system #6-large #7-charged molecules #8-membrane #9-site #10-respiration #11-energy generation #12-photosynthetic bacteria #13-site #14-photosynthesis
(bacteria>cell membrane>function of cell membrane) 6)#1 of #2 of #3 and #4 components. 7)#5 of #6 8)contains #7 which allow the #8 to respond to #9 in the environment. #1-site #2-biosynthesis #3-lipids #4-cell wall #5-co-ordination #6-DNA replication #7-receptor molecules #8-bacterial cell #9-chemicals
(bacteria>genome) #1 information is found on #2 present in the #3 of the #4.smaller pieces of #5 exist in the #6 in the form of #7. this combination of #8 and #9 makes the #10 of the #11. #1-genetic #2-free floating chromosomes #3-cytoplasm #4-cell #5-DNA #6-cell #7-plasmid #8-chromosomes #9-plasmid #10-genome #11-cell
(bacteria>ribosomes) #1 are smaller than #2 found in #3. they are the #4 of #5 during #6. #1-bacterial ribosomes #2-ribosomes #3-eukaryotic cells #4-site #5-translation #6-protein synthesis
(sub viral particles>viroids) Viroids #1 are composed of a #2 of #3 (#4).As they have #5 they require #6 for #7.they interfere with the process of #8. #1-viroids #2-single piece #3-circular single stranded RNA #4-naked #5-RNA #6-reverse transcriptase #7-reproduction #8-transcription
(sub viral particles>viroids>hepatits D) Hepatits D #1 are responsible for the human diease #2.it is the #3 which cause #4 in the form of #5.the #6 are inclosed in #7.the #8 provides a #9 in which the #10 enter the #11. #1-viron #2-hepatits D #3-viron #4-liver cell death #5-hepatits #6-virons #7-hepatits B virus #8-B virus capsid #9-binding protein #10-hepatits D viron #11-human liver cell
(sub viral particles>prions) Prions #1 do not contain #2 and is thought to be composed of infections #3.the #4 triggers a change in #5 of related #6.they are known to cause dieases which only affect the #7. #1-prions #2-nucleic acid #3-mishapen proteins #4-protein #5-shape confirmation #6-normal cellular proteins #7-central nervous system.
(sub viral particles>prions>scrapie) Scrapie #1 are found naturally on neurones and some white blood cells.they are known as #2 (#3), when the #4 form infect a #5, #6 joins with the #7 form #8 and changes its #9 (#10). #1-prions #2-PrPc #3-(α-helix) #4-pathogenic #5-normal cell #6-PrPSc #7- non-pathogenic #8-PrPc #9-confirmational shape #10-(introduces β sheets)
(sub viral particles>prions>scrapie) Scrapie this will continue until all #11 have been converted into #12 and it affect both sheep and goats.it result in the breakdown of #13 resulting in #14. #11-PrPc #12-PrPSc #13-brain tissue #14-spongiform encephalopathy
(sub viral particles>satellites) Satellites #1 are #2 of #3 which require #4 with a #5 for #6 to occur. #1-satellites #2-naked pieces #3-nucleic acid #4-co-infected #5-helper virus #6-replication
(protozoa>protozoa structure and function) Protozoa structure and function #1 have a #2 form which is called the #3. #1-protozoan cells #2-vegatative #3-trophozoite
(protozoa>protozoa structure>flagella) flagella (flagellum-#1) are used by #2.these protozoa may have one or more flagella which have long #3 from the cell.flagella can move by #4, #5 or #6 like tenticals. #1-singular #2-flagellates #3-thread like extensions #4-spining #5-whipping #6-moving
(protozoa>protozoa structure) 1)#1-used for #2 2)#3-used for #4 3)#5-responible for #6 4)#7-#8, divides by #9 in #10 5)#11-used to ingest nutrients #1-cilia #2-locomotion #3-contractile vacuole #4-osmoregulation #5-food vacuole
(protozoa>protozoa structure) 6)#12-cavity of the pharynx 7)#13-superficial layer of a protozoan 8)#14-bigger #15, control cell activities 9)#16 of #17-division of the #18 #6-digestion #7-micronucleus #8-small nucleus #9-mitosis #10-binary fission #11-oral groove #12-gullet #13-ectoplasm #14-macro nucleus #15-nucleus #16-canals #17-contrative vacuole #18-contractile cavity
(protozoa) Protozoa #1 are #2 (have their #3 in a #4 bound #5) organisms. #1-protozoa #2-unicellular eukaryoates #3-DNA #4-membrane #5-nucleus
(protozoa>reproduction) #1 reproduce asexually by a process known #2.the #3 are separated and are pulled to halve the #4 and then the #5 elongates.the #6 and #7 grow and divied to give two identical #8. #1-protozoa #2-binary fission #3-chromosomes #4-cell #5-cell #6-cell wall #7-cell membrane #8-cell
(protozoa>protozoa structure>vacuoles) vacuoles #1 are present in the #2 of the cell. 1)#3 vacuole 2)#4 vacuole 3)#5 vacuole #1-vacuole #2-cytoplasm #3-contractile #4-secretory #5-food
(protozoa>protozoa structure>nuclei) nuclei some protozoa have one #1 like most other animal cells.however some protozoa have two types of nuclei are formed. micronucleus-the #2.the #3 is #4 and is involved in #5 during#6 and the regeneration of the#7. #1-nucleus #2-nuclei #3-micronucleus #4-dipole #5-genetic recombination #6-reproduction #7-macronucleus
(protozoa>protozoa structure>cilia) cilia cilia are hair like structures used by #1.cilia are #2 and #3 than #4 but with the same overall structure.thay are found in large numbers on the cell and arranged in rows.cilia move the cell by an #5. #1-ciliates #2-smaller #3-shorter #4-flagella #5-oar like stakes
(protozoa>protozoa structure>pseudopodia) pseudopodia pseudopodia are fairly thick temperorary extenisions to the cell produced by #1 of the cell and #2 the #3 and they usually contain both #4 and #5. #1-pinching #2-extending #3-cell membrane #4-ectoplasm #5-endoplasm
(protozoa>protozoa structure>cysts) cysts encystions allow many protozoa to maintain a resting stage called a #1. cysts are a #2 (#3) from of the protozoa and they are distinguished by the presence of a #4 as well as the #5 that can be observed. #1-cyst #2-dormat #3-inactive #4-cell wall #5-low metabolic activity
Created by: johnsmith13111