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marine biology

module 4

Animalia The kingdom that contains the largest number of species on our planet
Invertebrates Animals that do not possess a backbone
Vertebrates Animals that possess a backbone
Porifera These are commonly called sponges
substrate Even though sponges are considered animals, they do not move because they are attached to a bottom surface , which is often called this
pore cells A simple small sponge, the outer surface is covered with smooth cells and interrupted by tube-like these that allow water to move into the animal
collar cells Inside the canals of the sponge's body are these and each of these cells has a flagellum that moves to create currents of water which flow into the sponge
osculum A large opening on a sponge through which filtered water is expelled
laterally When water always enters sponges from the sides
apically Water always leaves sponges through the top
ascon, sycon , and leucon The three basic sponge body types
aggregation One remarkable “behavior” of sponges is known as this, if a sponge is broken up into tiny bits, the fragments can actually come back together and reorganize, which forms a new individual
spicules the larger and more complex sponges are big enough to require a form of support, some have a network of this made of calcium carbonate or silica
spongin Many sponges have a web-like skeleton of elastic protein fibers called this, this skeleton provides support for the sponge, but it is much more flexible than spicules
amoebocytes Cells within a sponge that produce its skeletal structure, perform digestion, and repair cell damage
budding Another type of asexual reproduction in sponges is this when an individual develops a small outgrowth on its body, and grows for a while, then pinched off so it is separated from its parent
gemmule A group of cells surrounded by a shell made of spicules
larva An immature stage of an animal that appears different from the adult stage
amphiblastula collar cells develops into gametes and sperm are released into the water, entering another sponge the sperm joins the eggs, development occurs , cells multiply until they form a cluster of cells surrounded with a layer of flagellated cells, called this
metamorphosis A complete morphological change from larval to adult form
morphological refers to the form and structure of a living organism
Cnidaria this phylum contains jellyfish, corals, and sea anemones
coelenterates Cnidaria are sometimes called this
coel a large body cavity
Spherical symmetry A body form in which any cut through the organism's center results in identical halves
Radial symmetry A body form in which any longitudinal cut (along the length) through the organism's central axis results in identical halves
Bilateral symmetry A body form in which only one longitudinal cut through the organism's center results in identical halves
oral side the side with the mouth
aboral side the side without the mouth
Polyp An attached cnidarian stage, appearing sac-like or barrel-like
Medusa A free-swimming cnidarian stage, appearing bell-like or umbrella-like
mouth a organism uses this to eat
tentacles these surround the mouth and capture food
nematocysts unique stinging structures on tentacles that can paralyze prey or ward off predators
gastrovascular cavity where food is digested
mesoglea A jelly-like substance between the inner layer and outer layer of cells in a cnidarian
ectoderm on the outside
endoderm on the inside
carnivores Nearly all of the cnidarians are this which mean they prey on other animals
planula a free-swimming larval stage
nerve cells simple nervous system made up of these specialized cells in most cnidarians which enables some species to identify each other and to coordinate the “pulsing” of medusoid forms for orientation in the water column
Hydrozoa any freshwater or marine coelenterate including free-swimming or attached types, belong in this class
Scyphozoa Members of this class spend most if not all of their life cycle as a large medusa form
Anthozoa this class contains over 6,000 species, members are either solitary or colonial, spending their entire life cycle in the polyp stage, coral reef, fans, sea plumes, black corals, soft corals sea pens, and Sea anemones
coral reef a long line of coral that lies in warm, shallow water
zooxanthellae produce carbon-containing compounds (like sugars) by photosynthesis, and give some to the corals
sea fans, sea plumes, or black corals these are colonial anthozoans that form branching or elongated skeletons
soft corals and sea pens these are anthozoans that form colonies that do not have hard skeletons
Sea anemones have no hard skeleton, are common anthozoans, most of which are large, muscular polyps existing as solitary individuals or colonies
Ctenophora a small group of radially symmetric, gelatinous-bodied marine organisms (jellyfish)
comb jellies Ctenophora are also called this
combs or ctenes located vertically within the jellyfishes bodies, actually long cilia fused at their bases to look like a comb
Dorsal Referring to the top (or back) surface of an animal
Ventral Referring to the bottom (or belly) surface of an animal
anterior a defined head end
Platyhelminthes Animals in this phylum are called flatworms because of their flattened shape
central nervous system coordinates the movements of the flatworms well-developed muscles
intestine a baglike structurethat has only one opening, the mouth, through which food enters and wastes are expelled
Mutualism A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where both benefit from the association
Commensalism A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited
Parasitism A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed
Nemertea composed of organisms commonly called ribbon worms
proboscis the most interesting feature of the ribbon worms is a long, tubular this used for defense and to capture prey, which extends and entangles prey
Nematoda these members are known as roundworms
Annelida The segmented worms belong in this phylum
Coelom A body cavity within organisms containing specialized tissue
segmentation a body design made up of a series of similar compartments, or segments like the earthworm is called this
Polychaeta members of this class are usually called polychaetes
parapodia n each of the segments of a polychaete, there is a pair of small, flattened extensions called this
Gills Extensions of the body containing thin-walled blood vessels that allow for easy absorption of oxygen from the outside surface
trochophore Fertilization and development yield a larval stage called this which is a free-swimming, ciliated, planktonic stage that eventually metamorphoses into an adult polychaete.
Lophophorates these are given their name because of a special structure they use for feeding called a lophophore
suspension feeders This makes lophophorates this meaning they obtain their food from plankton and other particles of organic matter suspended in the water
Bryozoa Members of this group are commonly called moss animals
Phoronida These organisms look like polychaete worms and build tubes made out of sand grains
Brachiopoda these animals look like clams, but they are not true clams
lamp shells what Brachiopoda is commonly called
Created by: #1DoctorWhoFan
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