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Chapter 3 Biology

Holt McDougal's "Biology"

cell theory theory that states all organisms are made of cells, all cells are produced by other living cells, and the cell is the most basic unit of life.
cytoplasm jellylike substance inside cells that contains molecules and in some cells organelles.
organelle membrane bound structure that is specialized to perform a distinct process within a cell.
prokaryotic cell cell that does not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.
eukaryotic cell cell that has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.
cytoskeleton network of proteins, such as microtubules and microfilaments, inside eukaryotic cell that supports and shapes the cell.
nucleus organelle composed of a double membrane that acts as the storehouse for most of a cell's DNA.
endoplasmic reticulum interconnected network of thin, folded membranes that produce, process, and distribute proteins.
ribosome organelle that links amino acids together to form proteins.
Golgi apparatus stack of flat, membrane-enclosed spaces containing enzymes that process, sort, and deliver protons.
vesicle small organelle that contains and transports materials within the cytoplasm.
mitochondrion bean shaped organelle that supplies energy to the cell and has its own ribosomes and DNA
vacuole organelle that is used to store materials, such as water, food, enzymes, that are needed by the cell.
lysosome organelle that contains enzymes
centriole small cylinder-shaped organelle made of protein tubes arranged in a circle, aids mitosis
cell wall rigid structure that gives protection, support, and shape to cells in plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria.
chloroplast organelle composed of numerous membranes that are used to convert solar energy into chemical energy: contains chlorophyll
cell membrane double layer of phospholipids that forms a boundary between a cell and the surrounding environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell.
phospholipid molecule that forms a double-layered cell membrane, consists of a glycerol, a phosphate group, and two fatty acids.
fluid mosaic model model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
selective permeability condition or quality of allowing some, but not all, materials to cross a barrier or membrane.
receptor protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response.
passive transport movement of molecules across the cell membrane without energy input from the cell.
diffusion movement of dissolved molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
concentration gradient difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another
osmosis diffusion of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of low water concentration.
isotonic solution that has an equal concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution.
hypertonic solution that has a higher concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution.
hypotonic solution that has a lower concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution.
facilitated diffusion diffusion of molecule assisted by protein channels that pierce a cell membrane.
active transport energy-requiring movement of molecules across a membrane from a region
endocytosis uptake of liquids or large molecules into a cell by inward folding of the cell membrane
phagocytosis uptake of a solid particle into a cell by engulfing the particle
exocytosis release of substances out of a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane.
Created by: livwesty



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