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Microbiology

Ch. 13 powerpoint

QuestionAnswer
-obligatory intracellular parasites -acellular -no plasma membrane -no ribosomes -no ATP- generating mechanism -no sensitive to antibiotics characteristics of Viruses
-contain DNA OR RNA -contain a protein coat -some viruses are enclosed by an envelope -some viruses have spikes characteristics of Viruses
True or False: Most viruses infect only specific types of cells in one host? True
Host range is determined by what? specific host attachment sites and host cellular factors
a complete, fully developed, infectious viral particle Virion
Viruses are classified by: -their nucleic acid -differences in the structures of their coats
-DNA or RNA but never both -single stranded or double stranded -linear or circular What type of acid? Nucleic acid
capsomeres: protein subunits, a single type or several types capsid
4 different types of viruses? -Helical viruses -Polyhedral viruses -Enveloped viruses -Complex viruses
What is the general size of viruses? -much smaller than bacteria -less than 500 nanometers
Viruses must be grown in what kind of cells? Living cells
bacteriophages form what on a lawn of bacteria? plaques
Animal viruses may be grown in what? (3) -living animals -embryonated eggs -in cell cultures
Do all viruses have the same shape? No
Where are viral spikes located? outmost surface
For a virus to multiply, it must do what? invade a host cell and take over the host's metabolic machinery
What usually causes host cell's death? Viral multiplication
Bacteriophage life cycle is well known and similar to what? animal viruses
phage causes lysis and death of host cell Lytic cycle
Prophage DNA incorporated in host DNA Lysogenic cycle
Multiplication of Animal Viruses: -viruses attach to cell membrane -by binding between viral capsid protein or spikes and host proteins or glycoproteins on the plasma membrane Attachment
Multiplication of Animal Viruses: -by receptor-mediated endocytosis or fusion Penetration
Multiplication of Animal Viruses: -by viral or host enzymes Uncoating
Multiplication of Animal Viruses: -production of nucleid acid and proteins Biosynthesis
Multiplication of Animal Viruses: -nucleic acid and capsid proteins assemble, usually a spontaneous process Maturation
Multiplication of Animal Viruses: -by budding (enveloped viruses) or rupture (nonenveloped viruses) Release
the genetic material of what type of virus becomes integrated into the host cell's DNA? Oncogenic viruses
Activated what transform normal cells into cancerous cells? Oncogenes
Transformed cells have what? (3) -increased growth -loss of contract inhibition -chromosomal abnormalies (unusual #'s of chromosomes; fragmented chromosomes)
tumor-specific transplantation antigens TSTA
virus-specific antigen in nucleus T antigens
Papillomaviruses cause what type of cancer? uterine (cervical) cancer
liver cancer Virus? Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
Burkitt's lymphoma Virus? Epstein-Barr (EB) virus
Virus remains in asymptomatic host cell for long periods Latent viral infections
Disease process occurs over a long period; generally is fatal -measles virus Persistent viral infections
Retroviruses -viral RNA is transcribed to DNA, which can integrate into host DNA -human T cell leukemia virus Oncogenic RNA viruses
Created by: yulissalira