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# Exam 2 Biology

TermDefinition
Energy is the capacity to do work either actively or stored for later use.
Energy is transferred with electrons
Oxidation is the loss of an electron
Reduction is the gain of one electron
Oxidation less stored energy
Reduction more stored energy
Kinetic energy that can work actively
Potentail energy stored for later use
Exergonic an energy yielding process
Exothermic a heat yielding process
Exophotic light yielding process
Endergonic an energy requiring process
Endothermic heat requiring process
Endophotic light requiring process
Entropy a measure of randomness in a system it takes energy input to maintain a complex organized (non random) system (hence why you decay when you die and no longer have energy to maintain your organized state) great comparison to a child's room
Free energy energy which is available to do work ( that is what you want to do) because it is not already in some designed form such as heat or light
Gibbs free energy exchange the change in heat content minus the changer in entropy (randomness,S) multiplied by the absolute temperature
First Law of Thermodynamics or called the Law of Conservation states that the total energy in the universe is constant and therefore energy can not be created nor destroyed only change its form
First Law of Thermodynamics or called the Law of Conservation E=mc^2
Second Law of Thermodynamics (Energy) states that in the universe the total amount of free energy available for dong work is declining
Second Law of Thermodynamics (Energy) primary because this energy is being lost in some other energy form such as light or heat in essence you have to eat more than you need because 2?3 of the energy in your food is given off as heat when you break larger molecules into smaller monomer
Oxidation electron is moved to a lower energy level and therefore energy is released during oxidation does not always involve oxygen
Reduction electron is moved to higher energy level and this requires an input of energy this energy is noted so a molecule or compound like methane is full of potential energy while the end result of burning oxidation methane which forms carbon dioxide has noenergy
metabolism the sum of all energy exchanges that occur through chemical reactions in a living cell; equal to anabolism + catabolism
anabolism all chemical reactions involved in biosynthesis
catabolism all chemical reactions involved in the degradation of larger molecules
enzymes globular water soluble proteins which lower the activation energy of chemical reactions in living cells thereby speeding up chemical reaction
enzymes acts as a catalysts by facilitating reaction without being altered and can be reused as needed
Biochemical Pathways involve many enzymes
enzymes normally end with "ase"
cofactors most enzymes require additional substances called what to function properly
cofactors are divided into inorganic ions and organic coenzymes (like vitamins)
cofactors change the shape of enzymes to help them fit and process their respective substrate
vitamin coenzymes aid in the transference of hydrogen or various functional groups
ATP formed by having the nitrogenous base adenine hooked up to a five-carbon ribulose sugar and three phosphate groups
ATP this is how your body stores its energy highest energy sides between the second and third phosphate groups
ATP can be made either by hooking an inorganic phosphate (P) group onto ADP or hooking two inorganic phosphate groups (PP) onto AMP in a two- step process that makes ADP first
phosphorylation is the making of ATP
photophosphorylation the use of light to make ATP
oxidative phosphorylation the use of oxygen to make ATP
Enzymes remember that all what are globular water-soluble proteins made up of amino acid monomers some enzymes are actually enzyme complexes made up of many subunits
enzymes act on specific substrates to produce and enzyme-substrate (E-S) complex which then gives rise to specific products
substrates sizes don't matter
Active site is where the enzyme chemically alters the substrate
Active site is composed of a positioning site plus the catalytic site
positioning site a site for rotating the molecule
catalytic site for chemically altering the substrate this site may also involve one or more cofactors
catalysts does not change itself can use it over and over again
catalysts enzymes are what which affect (usually quicken the rate of a reaction) but do not chemically change themselves during the reaction and so can be used again
enzymes have an optimum temperature and a optimum pH
optimum temp for enzymes 37 degrees C = 98.6 degrees F
enzymes will denature if the temperature or pH is too high or too low
Allosteric Interaction other shape
Allosteric Interaction allosteric effete site besides active site
Allosteric Interaction allosteric effectors can be cofactors, co enzymes, or a product made by the enzyme
Allosteric Interaction a common method for regulating the rate of enzyme function in your body
Allosteric Interaction involved in negative feedback control of enzymes/hormones
Competitive Inhibition reversible
Competitive Inhibition chemically related substrate occupies the active site
Competitive Inhibition morphine addiction (brain normally produces endorphins and encephalins)
Noncompetitive Inhibition referable if treated in time
Noncompetitive Inhibition a chemically related substrate occupies another site besides the active site (usually the allosteric effector site) to cause a temporary change in the enzyme shape
Noncompetitive Inhibition snake/spider venoms (many of these look like coenzyme vitamins)
Irreversible Inhibition binding of chemically active substances to key R-groups which causes permanent damage/death
Irreversible Inhibition nerve gas; arsenic; penicillin destroying bacteria
Created by: esenkbeil

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