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Microbiology

ch. 7 powerpoint

QuestionAnswer
microbial contamination (possibly life-threatening) Sepsis
absence of significant contamination Asepsis
prevents microbial contamination (ex: in a lab or during surgery) Aseptic techniques
removing all microbial life including all endospores Sterilization
removing pathogens from inanimate objects Disinfection
removing pathogens from living tissue, especially wounded tissue Antisepsis
removing microbes from a limited area, especially not wounded part Degermation
any cleansing technique that mechanically removes microbes Sanitization
What are you accomplishing if you apply 5% bleach to an examining table? disinfection
What are you accomplishing if you handwash with soap? sanitization
What are you accomplishing if you are performing surgical handscrub? degermation
what are Microbicidal agents? biocide, germicide
what are examples of microbistatic agents? bacteriostatic agent, fungistatic agent
Many antibiotics are what kind of agents? microbistatic agents
What is the death in microorganisms? microbials die at a constant rate (6 min)
chemical concentration x exposure time= CT value
-alteration of membrane permeability -damage to proteins -damage to nucleic acids Actions of Microbial Control Agents
-Heat -Low temps., high pressure, desiccation, and osmotic pressure -filtration -radiation physical methods of microbial control
Disinfection or sterilization? Boiling at 100 degrees C for 30 min to destroy non-spore-forming pathogens disinfection
steam under pressure -steam must contact the item's surface -more effective than boiling water: kill endospores Autoclave
-reduces spoilage organisms and pathogens -applied to milk or beer Pasteurization
Demonstrated that life did not arise spontaneously from nonliving matter Louis Pasteur
showed that microbes are responsible for fermentation Pasteur
the conversion of sugar to alcohol to make beer and wine Fermentation
found that yeast ferment sugars to alcohol and that bacteria can oxidize the alcohol to acetic acid Pasteur
responsible for spoilage of food microbial growth
heating process that is used to kill bacteria in some alcoholic beverages and milk Pasteurization
Dry heat: -flaming -inceneration -hot-air sterilization Dry heat sterilization
physical removal of microbes by passing a gas or liquid through filter Filtration
physical method of microbial control that inhibits microbial growth Low temperature
Physical method of microbial control that prevents metabolism Desiccation
Physical method of microbial control that causes plasmolysis Osmotic pressure
High what can kill microorganisms? energy radiations
little penetrating power so it must be directly exposed Nonionizing radiation
what disrupts plasma membranes? Phenol and Phenolics
not rarely used as an antiseptic or disinfectant phenol
the gold standard of disinfectants and other disinfectants are often compared to to rate their effectiveness Phenol
Hexachlorophene, triclosan (found in hand soap) -disrupt plasma membranes Bisphenols
-disrupts plasma membranes -is not absorbed into the skin -used as skin degerming agents for preoperative scrubs, skin cleaning, and burns Chlorhexidine
Iodine -Alter protein synthesis and membranes -Tinctures: In aqueous alcohol -Iodophors: in organic molecules, iodine is released slowly, betadine Chlorine Halogens
Ethanol, isopropanol -denature proteins, dissolve lipids Alcohols
What % of ethanol is more effective than 100%? 70%
-sorbic acid, benzoic acid, and calcium propionate -inhibit metabolism -control molds and bacteria in foods and cosmetics -safe Organic acids
prevents botulism endospore germination but produces the carcinogen nitrosamines Nitrate or nitrite
-sterilant -Formaldehyde, formalin, and glutaraldehyde -inactivate proteins by cross-linking with functional groups -use: medical equipment, embalming by morticians Aldehydes
do not have much direct effect on microorganisms, and bacteria can readily be isolated from the interior of recently operated microwave ovens microwaves
Created by: yulissalira