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FA GI Patho

QuestionAnswer
Dx : Loss of myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus leading to failure of LES relaxation Achalasia
Dx : Bird's beak on barium swallow Achalasia
Dx : Painful mucosal lacerations at GE junction. Mallory-Weiss syndrome (Bleeding due to esophageaal varices is painless)
Dx : Transmural esophageal rupture due to violent retching. Respi symptoms. Boerhaave syndrome
Dx : What esophageal pathology is associated with lye ingestion? Esophageal strictures
Dx : Dysphagia, glossitis, and iron-deficiency anemia. Plummer-Vinson syndrome
List the risk factors for esophageal cancer? ABCDEF Alcohol/Achalasiaa Barrett's Esophagus Cigarettes Diverticuli Esophageal web/Esophagitis Familial
Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. Autoantibodies to gluten in wheat and other grains. Celiac sprue
Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. Infection with Tropheryma whippelii. Whipple's disease
Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. PAS-positive foamy macrophages in intestinal lamina propria. Non-AIDS patient. Whipple's disease
Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. Foamy macrophages in lamina propria. AIDS patient. Infection by Mycobacterium vium-intracellulare complex
Dx : Antiglandin antibodies. Blunting of villi. Lymphocytes in lamina propria. Celiac sprue
Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. Associated with dermatitis herpetiformis. Celiac sprue
Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. Moderately increaase risk of malignancy (most often T-Cell lymphoma) Celiac sprue
Chronic gastritis due to pernicious anemia affects which part of the stomach? Type A chronic gastritis. Affects Body (and fundus)
Chronic gastritis due to H.pylori infection affects which part of the stomach? Type B chronic gastritis Affecs Antrum (and pylorus)
MALT lymphoma is associated to which GI pathology? H.pylori infection (Type B Chronic Gastritis)
Dx : Gastric hypertrophy with protein loss, parietal cell atrophy, and increased mucous cells. Menetrier's disease
Which type of gastric carcinoma is not associated with H.pylori? Diffuse type gastric carcinoma (linitis plastica)
Which type of peptic ulcer disease whose pain can be greater with meals, hence results in weight loss. Gastric ulcer
Which type of peptic ulcer disease whose pain decreases with meals, hence results in weight gain. Duodenal ulcer
What syndrome is characterized by hyperacidity due to malignant pancreatic islet tumors which secrete excess gastrin. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
Which type of IBD presents with : a) Continuous colonic lesions, always with rectal involvement b) Can be at any portion of GI tract, except rectum, and have skip lesions. a) Ulcerative Colitis b) Crohn's disease
Which type of IBD presents with : a) Transmural inflammation b) Mucosal and submucosal inflammation only a) Crohns's disease b) Ulcerative colitis
Which type of IBD presents with : a) Cobblestone mucosa, creeping fat, bowel wall thickening b) Friable mucosal pseudopolyps a) Crohn's disease b) Ulcerative colitis
Which type of IBD presents with : a) Lead Pipe appearance b) String sign a) Ulcerative colitis b) Crohn's disease
Which type of IBD presents with : a) Non caseating granulomas and lyphoid aggregates b) crypt abscesses and ulcers, no granulomas a) Crohn's disease b) Ulcerative colitis
Which type of IBD is associated with : a) colorectal carcinoma b) malabsorbtion a) ulcerative colitis b) Crohn's disease
Which type of IBD is associated with : a) Migratory polyarthirits b) Primary sclerosing cholangitis a) Crohn's disease b) Ulcerative colitis
Which part of the GI tract is diverticulosis commonly located? Sigmoid colon
Pneumaturia is a complication associated with which GI disease? Diverticulitis (causing colovesical fistula)
List the "five 2's" associated with Meckel's diverticulum. 2 inches long, 2 feet from ileocecal valve, 2% of population, commonly presents in first 2 years of life, may have 2 types of epithelia (gastric/pancreatic).
Which part of the GI tract does volvulus usually occur? Sigmoid colon (where there is redundant mesentery)
Dx : Congenital megacolon characterized by lack of ganglion cells/enteric nervous plexus in segment on intestinal biopsy. Hirschsprung's disease
Dx : Early bilious vomiting and proximal stomach distension Duodenal atresia
Risk of Hirschprung's disease is increased with which genetic abnormality? Down syndrome
Duodenal atresia is associated with which genetic abnormality? Down syndrome
Dx : Premature baby. Necrosis of intestinal mucosaa and possible perforation. Necrotizing enterocolitis
Dx : Acute bowel obstruction, history of recent surgery. Adhesion
Which part of the GI tract does ischaemic colitis commonly occur? Splenic flexure.
Dx : Dilation of vessels in GIT, leading to bleeding. Most often found in cecum and ascending colon. Angiodysplasia
What syndrome is associated with FAP with osseous and soft tissue tumors, and retinal hyperplasia? Gardner's syndrome
What syndrome is associated with FAP with brain involvement (glioma and medulloblastoma)? Turcot's syndrome
Autosomal-dominant mutation of APC gene on chromosome 5q is associated with what disease? Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)
Dx : Hamartomatous polyps of colon and small intestine. Hyperpigmented mouth, lips, hands, genitalia. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
Dx : Tumor of endrocrine cells. Commonly located in small intestine. Carcinoid syndrome
Dx : Dense core bodies seen on EM. Wheezing, right sided heart murmurs, diarrhea, flushing. Carcinoid syndrome.
Will carcinoid syndrome be observed when carcinoid tumor metastases outside GI system? YES! (there will only be Carcinoid syndrome if the carcinoid tumor metastases outside GI system (usually to liver))
Dx : AST more than ALT Alcoholic hepatitis
Dx : ALT more than AST Viral hepatitis
Ceruloplasmin will decrease in which disease? Wilson's disease
Dx : Child. Hepatomegaly and encephalopathy. Fatty liver, hypoglycemia, coma. Associated with viral infection that has been treated with salicylates. Reye's syndrome
Dx : Young women. Liver inflammation symptoms. Positive ANA and anti-smooth muscle antibodies. Autoimmune hepatitis
Dx : Neonate. Liver inflammation symptoms. Biopsy shows multinucleated giant cells. Neonatal hepatitis
Dx : Describe the ALT / AST levels in fulminant hepatic failure. Decreased (cuz liver parenchyma destroyed)
Dx : Micronodular, ireegularly shrunken liver with "hobnail" appearance. Sclerosis around the central vein. Alcoholic cirrhosis
In relation to the liver, increased AFP is an indication of what? Hepatocellular carcinoma
Dx : Occlusion of IVC or hepaticc veins with centrilobular congestion and necrosis, leading to congestive liver disease. Budd Chiari syndrome
Dx : Liver congestion signs, but absence of jugular venous distention. Budd Chiari syndrome
Dx : Neonatal hepatitis, PAS positive globules in liver. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
Which type of jaundice presents with : Mixed hyperbilirubinemia, increased urine bilirubin, and normal/decreased urine urobilinogen. Hepatocellular type jaundice. (viral hepatitis etc)
Which type of jaundice presents with : Increased serum conjugated bilirubin, increased urine bilirubin, and decreased urine urobilinogen. Obstructive type jaundice. (stone in common bile duct etc)
Which type of jaundice presents with : Increased serum unconjugated bilirubine, absent urine bilirubin, and increased urine urobilinogen. Hemolytic type jaundice. (hereditary spherocytosis etc)
Dx : Increased unconjugated bilirubin even without hemolysis. No symptoms. Associated with stress. Gilbert's syndrome.
Dx : Jaundice, kernicterus. Presents early in life. Increased unconjugated bilirubin due to absent UDP-glucoronyl transferase. Crigler-Naijar syndrome type 1
What is the treatment of choice for type 2 Crigler-Naijar syndrome? Phenobarbital
What is the treatment of choice for type 1 Crigler-Naijar syndrome? Plasmapheresis and phototherapy
Dx : Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia due to defective liver excretion. Black liver. Dubin-Johnson syndrome
Which type of hereditary hyperbilirubinemia is due to : a) Problem in excretion of conjugated bilirubin b) Problem with bilirubin uptake c) Problem with bilirubin conjugation a) Dubin-Johnson syndrome b) Gilbert's syndrome c) Crigler-Naijar
Dx : Asterixis, Basal ganglia degeneration, Choreiform movements, Dementia, Hemolytic anemia Wilson's disease ABCD (also including Cirrhosis, Corneal deposits, Carcinoma (hepatocellular)
Name a pharmacological treatment for Wilson's disease. Penicillamine
Dx : micronodular Cirrhosis, Diabetes mellitus, skin pigmentation. Hemochromatosis
List 2 complications of Hemochromatosis. CHF, Hepatocellular carcinoma
Name a pharmacological treatment used for hemochromatosis. Deferoxamine
Dx : Concentric "onion skin" bile duct fibrosis Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Dx : Severe obstructive jaundice, steatorrhea, pruritus, hypercholesterolemia. Increased ALP, increased serum mitochondrial antobodies. Primary biliary cirrhosis
Dx : Jaundice, fever, right upper quadrant pain Cholelithiasis/cholangitis (charcot's triad of cholangitis)
Which type of gallstone is associated with chronic RBC hemolysis? Pigment stones (black)
Which type of gallstone is associated with biliary infection? Pigment stones (brown)
Which type of gallstone is associaed with alcoholic cirrhosis? Pigment stones
Which type of gallstones is associated with Native American origin? Pigment stones
Dx : Air can be seen in biliary tree on imaging. Gallstone obstructs ileocecal valve. (there is a fistula between gallbladder and small intestine)
Dx : Epigastric abdominal pain radiating to back, anorexia, nausea. Elevated amylase and lipase. Acute pancreatitis
What is chronic calcifying pancreatitis strongly associated with? Alcoholism
List the causes of acute pancreatitis. GET SMASHeD Gallstone, Ethanol (alcohol), Trauma, Steroids, Mumps, Autoimmune disease, Scorpian sting, Hypercalcemia/Hyperlipidemia, Drugs
Dx : Migratory thrombophlebitis, Abdominal pain radiating to back, Weight loss, Obstructive jaundice with palpable gallbladder Pancreatic adenocaarcinoma
Created by: lemontea88