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Exam 1

Molecular Biology

QuestionAnswer
What end do nucleotides add to? 3'
Adenine pairs with.... thymine
Guanine pairs with... cytosine
Are C-G bonds more stable or are A-T bonds more stable? C-G because of 3 hydrogen bonds
A nucleotide has nucleic acid base, sugar and a phosphate
The phosphodiester bond between neighboring nucleotides in DNA is 3' to 5'
What are the 4 types of nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine
purines adenine and guanine
pyrimidines cytosine and thymine
In RNA U (uracil) replaces.... thymine
More G-C bonds means higher melting point
C-value and C-value paradox genome size; genome size is not related to complexity of an organism
Decrease in salt concentration will....... Tm of DNA Decrease
DNA can be denatured by: low salt concentration, heat, organic solvents, High pH
The most abundant RNA in a cell is: rRNA (protein translation)
DNA insertion in a vector shuts down the LacZ gene expression, and turns the c colony to white Blue-white screening
Blue colonies no insert
white colonies contains insert
Chain terminating nucleotides ddNTPs
What are the differences btwn sanger sequencing and PCR ddNTPs in sanger and theres 2 primers for PCR and only 1 for DNA sequencing
Shows where your cloning gene is expressed Reporter gene
The enzyme that cuts at a specific site is restriction enzyme
DNA fingerprinting is used to identify persons base on their unique DNA
Southern blot is to detect specific DNA
The enzyme use in PCR is DNA ligase
Which cycle starts to make two of exact length specified by the pair of primers in PCR 3
cDNA is: eukaryotic DNA with only exons that can be cloned into prokaryotes
Scientists use PUC18 as a gene cloning vector that includes a gene for a portion of beta-galactosidase if foreign DNA is inserted, the beta galactosidase marker is inactivated, and the colonies remain white
To carry out sanger sequencing a mixture is needed containing SSDNA, DNA polymerase, four deoxyribonucleotides a,t,c,g
What is the function of dideoxynucleotides in sanger DNA sequencing they stop synthesis at a specific site, so the base at that site can be determined
a method for determining the DNA sequence of an entire genome. After a genome is cut into small fragments, each fragment is sequenced and then placed in the proper order whole genome shotgun method
ddNTPs are used in which biochemical reactions DNA sequencing
What is BLAST BLAST searches for sequence matches in a nucleotide or protein database
You have a DNA sequence and you wish to find out whether it could encode a protein. Which BLAST program should you use? BLASTP
Which of the following reporter genes cannot be used for live cell imaging? beta-galactosidase
Genome-wide gene expression patterns can be studied using microarrays
To use a microarray, mRNA from cells of interest are first converted to cDNA
When DNA is damaged by UV light and is not repaired neither DNA replication nor transcription can occur and the organism will probably die
Which of the following mechanisms is required to repair pyrimidine dimers cause by ultra violet in the presence of light in bacteria photoreactivation
In methyl-directed mismatch repair, the strand that is repaired is the non-methylated strand
In humans, xeroderma pigmentosum is cause by mutations in nucleotide excision repair
DNA replication is semiconservative
DNA polymerase I is.... most abundant
DNA polymerase II is... major enzyme for DNA replication
Arrange the following proteins in the proper order they participate in DNA replication helicase, SS binding protein, primase, DNA polymerase I
How many replication forks would be present in the E. Coli chromosome for cells that are growing under optimal condition two
DNA polymerase use their....... activity to remove a mismatched basepair 3' to 5'
Proofreading by DNA polymerase involves the removal of several bases on the newly synthesized strand of DNA
DNA polymerase cannot replicate the 3' end of linear chromosomes
Which of the following best describes the function of telomerase at the telomere? it adds new DNA to the longer strand of the DNA overhang