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POSC 201 Exam #2

What are the 3 types of feeding methods? Fractional Feeding Low-Density Feeding Skip-Day Feeding
What is the most common feeding method? Fractional Feeding
What is Fractional Feeding? Feeding birds a fraction of the food they would normally eat, but you feed them every day.
What is Low-Density Feeding? Giving birds everything they require nutritionally but filling the excess with things of non-nutritional value – like sawdust or sand – to make the birds feel full
What is Skip-Day Feeding? Feeding birds in excess every other day. Important to have adequate trough space to make sure birds are getting their proper amounts because they’ll have to skip a day.
Why do Male and Female birds have to be given different food? Males and Females have different nutritional requirements.
What is an excluder/ exclusive feeder? Feeders that are only large enough to allow for female birds to eat from them, because females and males require different feeding regimens.
What is auto-nesting and how is it useful to the industry? Automatic collection of eggs rather than having a person have to manually collect eggs – can have more frequent collection which makes the complex more efficient.
What happens when a lighting program begins before a hen is ready to begin laying? Stimulation below target weights may cause excessive "pee wee" eggs or prolapse ("blow-outs")
What happens when the lights are too bright in a lighting program? When lights are too bright in a lighting program, it may drive the birds crazy and they may turn cannibalistic.
What is in-line operation? Connection of a common conveyer belt moving between hen houses collecting all the eggs. Conveyer belt leads to a processing plant at the end of the houses
What does it mean to travel “young to old”? Younger birds are in the first houses in in-line operation and older birds are in the last houses
Why is traveling young to old in laying houses important? Young birds are more immune to diseases that could potentially be carried throughout the houses. The most exposure therefore is given to the older birds at the end that have the antibodies to deal with it.
What is natural incubation? Where birds that produced the fertile eggs also provide the necessary body heat for embryonic development
What is artificial incubation? Where the heat used to incubate the fertile egg is not the body heat of the parent
What is hatchability? Percentage of eggs hatched
What are the influences of hatchability? Fertility
 Egg selection Handling of hatching eggs
What are some of the things that influence the genetic factor of hatchability? Inbreeding decreases hatchability
 Crossbreeding and in crossbreeding increase hatchability
 Lethal and semi-lethal genes cause death
 Increased egg production increases hatchability
 Age: hatchability is highest during the first laying year
What are some of the things that influence the fertility factor of hatchability? Number of females mated to one male
 The age of the breeders
 The length of time between mating
 Management practices
Why is nutrition especially important in laying hens? Breeder hens must be fed rations which supply adequate quantities of nutrients needed for embryo development
Why is ventilation important when incubating eggs? Required to provide adequate supply of oxygen, proper removal of CO2, and maintain circulation of fresh air at proper temperature and humidity
How should eggs be set in the incubator and why should they be set that way? Eggs are set large end up and at an angle to keep the yolk in the geometric center of the egg
What is a settable egg? An egg that is ready to be incubated
What are the criteria for selecting settable hatching eggs? Egg size: huge or very small eggs decrease hatch
 Egg shape: deviate from normal decreases hatch
 Shell quality: strong shells hatch better than weak shells
 Interior quality: increased quality, increased hatch
What happens when the humidity in an incubator is too high? Mushy Chick – high humidity does not allow for enough evaporation of water
What happens when the humidity in an incubator is too low? Sticky Chick – low humidity allows for too much evaporation of water
What temperature should an incubator be kept at? 99.5 degrees
What are the main factors in choosing a Production Complex site? Rural Area Adequate Labor Supply Average to Poor agricultural land
What’s a Still Air Incubator? Incubator that lacks fans and is not a consistent temperature throughout. Not efficient - never used within the industry anymore. You could only have eggs incubating in the one area that is the proper temperature.
What’s a Forced Draft Incubator? Incubator with fans to ensure that temperature is constant throughout the incubator. Allows to eggs to be put into the incubator from the floor to the ceiling - maximizing the capacity.
What is single stage incubation? Where the entire capacity of an incubator is set at the same time
What is multiple stage incubation? Where you set 1/6 of the capacity of an incubator at one time rather than all at once
What is the purpose of multiple stage incubation? The eggs in the incubator are all at different stages of their development. This means eggs can be in endothermic and exothermic phases at the same time and provide each other heat. This is a symbiotic relationship, saves on electricity and heating
What is a Poultry Complex? A poultry complex is a satellite production unit of poultry processing
Which birds are NOT separated by sex when they’re hatched? Market Broiler
What are the 3 main types of auto-sexing? Feather sexing, Vent sexing, and Color sexing
What bird always has to be vent sexed? Turkey
What is the purpose of having separate rooms in a hatchery for the setter and the hatcher? reduce debris and microorganisms that accompany hatching
 Permit hatchers to be cleaned without disturbance to the eggs in the setters
 enable the lowering of temperature in the hatchers
 Hatchers are equipped with special trays not needed in setters
What are the services performed for newly hatched chicks? Sexing by vent, feather, or color. Debeaking Vaccination
What is aerosol vaccination and why is it colored? This is a vaccine that is sprayed on chicks rather than given through a needle. It is colored so you can visibly see when chicks have not received it. Aerosols reduce mechanical damage to chicks.
What is candling? Utilizing bright lights behind an egg to be able to see the interior of the egg. (Google “candling eggs” for a better mental picture of what that looks like)
What can candling show you? Blood spots, meat spots, chick mortality, egg age, etc.
Why is cleanup/sanitation crucial in a poultry complex? If an inspector deems a poultry complex unfit and not up to par with sanitation standards, they can shut it down to fix the issue. plant is down the company is losing money. Helps to lessen the spread of diseases, considered best practice
What’s the criteria for selecting a contract farm? Good Credit 50-mile radius from a feed mill 50 acres of land available Follows contract/ guidelines
What does a complex manager do? Oversees all employees of the poultry complex. They also are in charge of the scheduling that ensures that new flocks are available for processing every day.
Why is it important that the poultry industry maintain consistency? Birds must be a consistent size for product recognition and so that they fit properly into the complex machinery.
What’s the name of the Company that came in as a guest speaker? Ideal Poultry
What does Ideal Poultry do? Sells dual-purpose/ backyard flock chickens
Who is Ideal Poultry’s customer base? Regular consumers that are interested in owning chickens (Hobbyists, Backyard Flock Owners, etc.)
What is turning? If held for more than one week, eggs must be turned to prevent the yolk from sticking to the shell
How many eggs can a laying hen produce each year? About 300 or more
What is the most popular system for raising egg producing hens? Cage Rearing
What are the advantages of cage rearing? More density per house, multi-level cages
 Reduced medication costs for soil borne pathogens Eliminate environmental shock of moving from floor to wire
 Easy access to birds to vaccinate, weigh, etc.
How are eggs graded? Graded on interior and exterior quality and sold by size
What state is the number 1 producer of eggs in the U.S.? Iowa
What number in the country is Texas for egg production? Number 5
What is the NPIP? The National Poultry Improvement Plan
What are some advantages of joining the NPIP? Ensure that flocks are healthy and disease free
 Good for business
 Financial assistance if de-population required Use of labels
Why was the NPIP created? The NPIP program was initiated to eliminate pullorum disease caused by salmonella pullorum
Membership in the NPIP is…? Voluntary
What’s the difference between brown shell eggs and white shell eggs? There is no nutritional difference in brown shell vs. white eggs. The difference comes from different breeds of laying hens. Brown shells are usually more expensive because the breed that produces them are larger and require more feed and living space.
What is the albumen? The egg white part of an egg.
Created by: mstout