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Chapter 3

Cell Structure and Function

cell theory - all organisms are made of cells - all existing cells are produced by other cells -the cell is the most basic unit of life
cytoplasm jellylike substance that contains dissolved molecular building blocks
organelle structures specialized to preform distinct processes within a cell
prokaryotic cell do not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles
eukaryotic cell have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
cytoskeleton a flexible network of proteins that provide structural support of the cell
nucleus storehouse for most of the genetic information (DNA)
endoplasmic reticulum interconnected network of thin, folded membranes
ribosome like amino acids together to form proteins
Golgi apparatus closely layered stacks of membrane-enclosed spaces that process, sort, and deliver proteins
vesicle small, membrane-bound sacs that divide some materials from the rest of the cytoplasm and transport it
mitochondrion supply energy to the cell
vacuole fluid-filled sac used for the storage of materials needed by the cell
lysosome contain the enzymes
centriole cylinder-shaped organelle made of short microtubules arranged in a circle
cell wall rigid layer that gives protection, support, and shape to a cell
chloroplast carry out photosynthesis; series of complex chemical reactions that convert solar energy to into energy-rich molecules
cell membrane forms boundary between cell and outside environment and controls what goes in and out of the cell
phospholipid molecule composed of 3 basic parts (charged phosphate group, glycerol, 2 fatty acid chains)
fluid mosaic model describes arrangement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
selective permeability allows SOME materials to cross
receptor protein that detects a single molecule and preforms an action in response
passive transport movement of molecules across a cell membrane without energy input from the cell
diffusion movement of molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
concentration gradient difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another
osmosis water molecules moving across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to one of lower water concentration
isotonic solute concentration equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
hypertonic higher solute concentration that that inside of a cell
hypotonic lower solute concentration than that of a cell
facilitated diffusion diffusion of molecules through transport proteins
active transport drives molecules across a membrane from a region of lower concentration to one of higher concentration
endocytosis process of taking liquids or fairly large molecules into a cell by engulfing them in a membrane
phagocytosis type of endocytosis where the cell membrane engulfs large particles
exocytosis opposite of endocytosis; release out of a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with a membrant
Created by: kaseywallace



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