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Chapter 3 Vocab

cell theory all organisms are made of cells, all cells are made from other living cells, and the cell is the most basic unit of life
cytoplasm a jellylike substance made up of molecular building blocks
organelles structures specialized to perform distinct functions in a cell
prokaryotic cells cells that don't have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles
eukaryotic cells cells that have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
cytoskeleton a flexible network of proteins that provide structural support for the cell
nucleus the storehouse for most of the genetic information, or DNA, in your cells
endoplasmic reticulum an interconnected network of thin, folded membranes
ribosomes tiny organelles that link amino acids together to form proteins
Golgi apparatus consists of closely layered stacks of membrane-enclosed spaces that process, sort, and deliver proteins
vesicles a general name used to describe small, membrane-bound sacs that divide some materials from place to place within the cell
mitochondria the powerhouse of a cell
vacuole a fluid-filled sac used for the storage of materials needed by a cell
lysosomes membrane-bound organelles that contain enzymes
centrioles cylinder-shaped organelles made of short microtubules arranged in circles
cell wall a rigid layer that gives protection, support, and shape to the cell
chloroplasts organelles that carry out photosynthesis, a series of complex chemical reactions that convert solar energy into energy-rich molecules the cell can use
cell membrane aka the plasma membrane; forms a boundary between a cell and the outside environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell
phospholipid a molecule composed of three basic parts: a charged phosphate group, glycerol, and two fatty acid chains
fluid mosaic model model that describes the arrangement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
selective permeability when a cell membrane allows some, but not all, materials to cross
receptor a protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response
passive transport the movement of molecules across a cell membrane without energy input from the cell
diffusion the movement of molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
concentration gradient the difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another
osmosis when water molecules move across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration
isotonic term used to describe a solution that has a solute concentration equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
hypertonic term used to describe a solution that has a solute concentration higher than the solute concentration inside a cell
hypotonic term used to describe a solution that has a solute concentration lower than the solute concentration inside a cell
facilitated diffusion the diffusion of molecules across a membrane through transport proteins
active transport drives molecules across a membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration
endocytosis the process of taking liquids or fairly large molecules into a cell by engulfing them in a membrane makes a pocket around a substance
phagocytosis a type of endocytosis in which the cell membrane engulfs large particles
exocytosis the opposite of endocytosis; the release of substances out of a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane
Created by: KowitzE21